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Aneuploidies are common chromosomal defects that result in growth and developmental deficits and high levels of lethality in humans. To gain insight into the biology of aneuploidies, we manipulated mouse embryonic stem cells and generated a trans-species aneuploid mouse line that stably transmits a freely segregating, almost complete human chromosome 21(More)
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are uncommitted cells of the CNS defined by their multipotentiality and ability to self renew. We found these cells to not be present in substantial numbers in the CNS until after embryonic day (E) 10.5 in mouse and E5 in chick. This coincides with the induction of SOX9 in neural cells. Gain- and loss-of-function studies indicated(More)
At fertilization in mammals, the sperm induces a characteristic series of Ca2+ oscillations in the egg which serve as the essential trigger for egg activation and early development of the embryo. It is not known how the sperm initiates this fundamental process, however, nor has any pathway linking sperm-egg membrane-receptor binding with intracellular Ca2+(More)
Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in specialized niches in the adult mammalian brain, including the subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus, which act to control NSC behavior. Among other cell types within these niches, NSCs are found in close proximity to blood vessels. We carried out an analysis of the interaction between endothelial cells and NSCs, and(More)
Moderate non-progressive cognitive impairment is a consistent feature of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), although few central nervous system abnormalities have yet been identified. A model for DMD is provided by the mdx mouse which fails to produce full length dystrophin in muscle and brain. In this study we have compared performances in a(More)
Deletion of LIM homeodomain transcription factor-encoding Lhx6 gene in mice results in defective tangential migration of cortical interneurons and failure of differentiation of the somatostatin (Sst)- and parvalbumin (Pva)-expressing subtypes. Here, we characterize a novel hypomorphic allele of Lhx6 and demonstrate that reduced activity of this locus leads(More)
Sex chromosome divergence has been documented across phylogenetically diverse species, with amphibians typically having cytologically nondiverged ("homomorphic") sex chromosomes. With an aim of further characterizing sex chromosome divergence of an amphibian, we used "RAD-tags" and Sanger sequencing to examine sex specificity and heterozygosity in the(More)
Genomic sequence assemblies are key tools for a broad range of gene function and evolutionary studies. The diploid amphibian Xenopus tropicalis plays a pivotal role in these fields due to its combination of experimental flexibility, diploid genome, and early-branching tetrapod taxonomic position, having diverged from the amniote lineage ~360 million years(More)
The apicoplast, a non-photosynthetic plastid of apicomplexan species, has an extremely reduced but highly conserved genome. Here, the apicoplast genome of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (Pcc) isolate CB was characterized. Although the set of genes in the genome is identical, the copy number of some tRNA genes differs between Pcc(More)
The Xenopus mid-blastula transition (MBT) marks the onset of large-scale zygotic transcription, as well as an increase in cell cycle length and a loss of synchronous cell divisions. Little is known about what triggers the activation of transcription or how newly expressed genes interact with each other. Here, we use high-resolution expression profiling to(More)