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To use rodent models effectively in in-vivo investigations on oral drug and vaccine delivery, the conditions in the gastrointestinal tract must be understood. Some fundamental information is currently unavailable or incomplete. We have investigated the pH, water content and lymphoid tissue distribution along the gastrointestinal tract, as well as the(More)
There are 100 trillion microbes in the human gastrointestinal tract with numbers increasing distally. These microbiota secrete a diverse array of enzymes (primarily for carbohydrate and protein fermentation) giving them substantial metabolic potential which can have major implications for drug stability. At least thirty drugs which are, or have been,(More)
We carried out a genome-wide association study of type-2 diabetes (T2D) in individuals of South Asian ancestry. Our discovery set included 5,561 individuals with T2D (cases) and 14,458 controls drawn from studies in London, Pakistan and Singapore. We identified 20 independent SNPs associated with T2D at P < 10(-4) for testing in a replication sample of(More)
Infiltration of activated neutrophils [polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN)] into the lung is an important component of the inflammatory response in acute lung injury. The signals required to direct PMN into the different compartments of the lung have not been fully elucidated. In a murine model of LPS-induced lung injury, we investigated the sequential(More)
To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexican and Mexican American ancestry. We observed a significant excess in the directional consistency of(More)
Laboratory animals are often used in drug delivery and research. However, basic information about their gastrointestinal pH, fluid volume, and lymphoid tissue is not completely known. We have investigated these post-mortem in healthy guinea pigs, rabbits and pigs, to assess their suitability for pre-clinical studies by comparing the results with reported(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) towards diabetes of Family Physicians (FPs) working in urban and rural areas of Pakistan. METHODOLOGY A cross-sectional survey was conducted on FPs through an interview by a trained person and filling up a questionnaire focused on diagnosis, treatment and complications of diabetes. The(More)
AIMS A common variant, rs9939609, in the FTO (fat mass and obesity) gene is associated with adiposity in Europeans, explaining its relationship with diabetes. However, data are inconsistent in South Asians. Our aim was to investigate the association of the FTO rs9939609 variant with obesity, obesity-related traits and Type 2 diabetes in South Asian(More)
The change in morphology, diameter, branching pattern or tortuosity of retinal blood vessels is an important indicator of various clinical disorders of the eye and the body. This paper reports an automated method for segmentation of blood vessels in retinal images. A unique combination of techniques for vessel centerlines detection and morphological bit(More)
We need to look beyond our gut instincts to use information on "simple" intestinal physiological parameters as they have been presented to us in the past. Here we present a discussion on such parameters, old and new, and ask how much we really understand them. Behaviour of drugs and delivery systems in the intestine depends on many physiological factors(More)