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A serologic survey was undertaken in chickens in smallholdings in Bangladesh for avian influenza A virus (AIV), egg drop syndrome '76 virus (EDS'76V), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and reovirus (RV) in three phases: January 2002-May 2003, September 2003-August 2004, and August 2005-March 2006. Four hundred thirty-six sera(More)
The seed coat is important for embryo protection, seed hydration, and dispersal. Seed coat composition is also of interest to the agricultural sector, since it impacts the nutritional value for humans and livestock alike. Although some seed coat genes have been identified, the developmental pathways controlling seed coat development are not completely(More)
Senescence is an active process allowing the reallocation of valuable nutrients from the senescing organ towards storage and/or growing tissues. Using Arabidopsis thaliana leaves from both whole darkened plants (DPs) and individually darkened leaves (IDLs), we investigated the fate of mitochondria and chloroplasts during dark-induced leaf senescence.(More)
This project presents a linear zed, three-phase, and distribution class state estimation algorithm for applications in smart distribution systems. Unbalanced three-phase cases and single-phase cases are accommodated. The estimator follows a complex variable formulation and is intended to incorporate synchronized phasor measurements into distribution state(More)
Since its introduction, transdermal drug delivery has promised much but, in some respects has still to deliver on that initial promise, due to inherent limitations imposed by the percutaneous route. The greatest obstacle for transdermal delivery is the barrier property of the stratum corneum. Many approaches have been employed to breach the skin barrier, of(More)
Deficiencies in the alveolar ridges cause multiple problems in achieving aesthetic and functional outcome of implant therapy and are commonly restored by using onlay graft from intraoral source. Careful assessment of the recipient as well as the donor site using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a prerequisite to ideal treatment planning. This paper(More)
INTRODUCTION The ATP-binding cassette superfamily contains membrane transporter proteins that transport a wide range of diverse compounds across cellular membranes. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an important member of this family and a multi-specific drug efflux transporter that plays a significant role in governing the bioavailability of many clinically(More)
To determine the epidemiology of outbreaks of avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N1, H9N2) in chickens in Bangladesh, we conducted surveys and examined virus isolates. The outbreak began in backyard chickens. Probable sources of infection included egg trays and vehicles from local live bird markets and larger live bird markets.
CONTEXT The greatest obstacle for transdermal delivery is the barrier property of the stratum corneum. Many approaches have been employed to breach the skin barrier; the most widely used one is that of chemical penetration enhancers. Of the penetration enhancers, terpenes are arguably the most highly advanced and proven category. OBJECTIVE The aim of this(More)
IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD The buccal drug delivery system has been accepted as a potential non-invasive route of drug administration, with the advantages of avoidance of the first-pass metabolism, sustained therapeutic action and better patient compliance. However, transmucosal delivery of drugs by means of the buccal route is still very challenging. The main(More)