Learn More
BACKGROUND Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) of limited valency is justified in Africa by the high burden of pneumococcal disease. Long-term beneficial effects of PCVs may be countered by serotype replacement. We aimed to determine the impact of PCV-7 vaccination on pneumococcal carriage in rural Gambia. METHODS AND FINDINGS A(More)
Bacterial sepsis remains a leading cause of death among neonates with Staphylococcus aureus, group B streptococcus (GBS) and Streptococcus pneumoniae identified as the most common causative pathogens in Africa. Asymptomatic bacterial colonization is an intermediate step towards sepsis. We conducted a phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized(More)
Azithromycin (AZI) is used for its antibiotic and antimalarial properties in pregnancy. Reported estimates of AZI breast milk transfer, based on concentrations in mostly single samples from small numbers of women, have suggested that infant intake is safe. To better characterize infant intake and the associated potential benefits and risks, AZI was measured(More)
The immunogenicity and impact on carriage of fewer doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) followed by booster with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) were investigated. 684 infants were assigned randomly to one of the three groups that received one (A), two (B) or three (C) doses of PCV7 between 2 and 4 months of age, plus PPV at 10 months.(More)
BACKGROUND Introduction of pneumococcal vaccines in Nigeria is a priority as part of the Accelerated Vaccine Introduction Initiative (AVI) of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI). However, country data on the burden of pneumococcal disease (IPD) is limited and coverage by available conjugate vaccines is unknown. This study was carried(More)
BACKGROUND Gambian infants frequently acquire Streptococcus pneumoniae soon after birth. We investigated the indirect effect of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) on pneumococcal acquisition in newborn Gambian babies. METHODS Twenty-one villages were randomised to receive PCV-7 to all subjects (11 vaccinated villages) or to infants aged 2-30(More)
BACKGROUND This study evaluated the impact of age and pneumococcal vaccination on the density of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage. METHODS A cluster-randomized trial was conducted in rural Gambia. In 11 villages (the vaccine group), all residents received 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7), while in another 10 villages (the control(More)
BACKGROUND CRM- based pneumococcal conjugate vaccines generally have little impact on the overall prevalence of pneumococcal carriage because of serotype replacement. In contrast, protein vaccines could substantially reduce the overall prevalence of pneumococcal carriage with potential microbiological and clinical consequences. Therefore, trials of(More)
BACKGROUND A village-randomized trial of a seven-valent pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine (PCV-7) conducted in rural Gambia showed a decrease of vaccine-type (VT) and a non-significant increase in non-vaccine-type (NVT) nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococci two years after vaccination. Here, we report findings four years after vaccination. METHODS PCV-7 was(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate pneumococcal colonisation before and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in eastern Gambia. METHODS Population-based cross-sectional survey of pneumococcal carriage between May and August 2009 before the introduction of PCV into the Expanded Program on Immunization. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from(More)