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A procedure for the regeneration of cacao (Theobroma cacao) plants from staminode explants via somatic embryogenesis was developed. Rapidly growing calli were induced by culturing staminode explants on a DKW salts-based primary callus growth (PCG) medium supplemented with 20 g glucose per L, 9 μM 2,4-D, and thidiazuron (TDZ) at various concentrations. Calli(More)
In order to prevent the destruction of the ecology and to sustain the flora mainly for medicinal plants, we investigated on alternative parts taken from four plants already known to display antiplasmodial activities and largely used by traditional healers in sub-Saharan Africa. The evaluated parts are bark of trunk for Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and leaves(More)
The development of efficient tissue culture systems for cacao holds the potential to contribute to the improvement of this tropical erop by providing a rapid and efficient vegetative propagation system for multiplication of elite genotypes. It may also find application in facilitation of germplasm movement across quarantine borders, enhancement of germplasm(More)
BACKGROUND The pathogenic mechanisms of cerebral malaria (CM) are unclear but are thought to involve cytokine-mediated inflammation enhanced by parasite sequestration in the brain microcirculation. The role that interferon (IFN)-gamma could play that would enhance inflammation but also reduce parasitemia is unclear. METHODS Plasma IFN-gamma concentrations(More)
BACKGROUND The predominant manifestations of severe malaria in African children are cerebral malaria (CM) and severe malarial anemia (SMA). As a first step toward a family-based approach to identify the environmental and genetic pathways that contribute to severe malaria, we tested whether it aggregates within families. METHODS Family history of severe(More)
The role of the Th1 pathway in the pathogenesis of severe malaria is unclear. We recently reported that a polymorphism with increasing IFNG transcription is associated with protection against cerebral malaria (CM). Interleukin-12 is required for Th1 cell differentiation, which is characterized by the production of interferon-gamma. We investigated 21(More)
BACKGROUND The community case management of malaria (CCMm) is now an established route for distribution of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in rural areas, but the feasibility and acceptability of the approach through community medicine distributors (CMD) in urban areas has not been explored. It is estimated that in 15 years time 50% of the(More)
Malaria remains a major public health problem due to the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance. There is an urgent need to investigate new sources of antimalarial drugs which are more effective against Plasmodium falciparum. One of the potential sources of antimalarial drugs is traditional medicinal plants. In this work, we studied(More)
BACKGROUND Home Management of Malaria (HMM) is one of the key strategies to reduce the burden of malaria for vulnerable population in endemic countries. It is based on the evidence that well-trained communities health workers can provide prompt and adequate care to patients close to their homes. The strategy has been shown to reduce malaria mortality and(More)
BACKGROUND The population exposed to malaria within African cities has steadily increased. However, comprehensive data on life-threatening malaria features and risk factors in children from urban areas with seasonal malaria transmission, such as in Bamako (Mali), are lacking. METHODS Children admitted to the Gabriel Touré Hospital in Bamako with severe(More)