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Anopheles gambiae, the major malaria vector in Africa, can be divided into two subgroups based on genetic and ecological criteria. These two subgroups, termed the M and S molecular forms, are believed to be incipient species. Although they display differences in the ecological niches they occupy in the field, they are often sympatric and readily hybridize(More)
The African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, inhabits diverse environments including dry savannas, where surface waters required for larval development are absent for 4-8 months per year. Under such conditions, An. gambiae virtually disappears. Whether populations survive the long dry season by aestivation (a dormant state promoting extended longevity(More)
BACKGROUND Knowledge of the ecological differences between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae and their sibling species, An. arabiensis might lead to understanding their unique contribution to disease transmission and to better vector control as well as to understanding the evolutionary forces that have separated them. METHODS The distributions of(More)
The African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, is widespread south of the Sahara including in dry savannahs and semi-arid environments where no surface water exists for several months a year. Adults of the M form of An. gambiae persist through the long dry season, when no surface waters are available, by increasing their maximal survival from 4 weeks to 7(More)
Reduced survival and future reproduction due to of current reproduction is a trade-off known as the cost of reproduction. Surprisingly, only a few studies have assessed the cost of reproduction in arthropod disease vectors, despite its effect on longevity, and thus on vectorial capacity. We evaluated the cost of reproduction on survival of Anopheles gambiae(More)
BACKGROUND Persistence of African anophelines throughout the long dry season (4-8 months) when no surface waters are available remains one of the enduring mysteries of medical entomology. Recent studies demonstrated that aestivation (summer diapause) is one mechanism that allows the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, to persist in the Sahel.(More)
Mating in Anopheles gambiae has been observed only in outdoor swarms. Here we evaluate whether mating also occurs indoors. Mark-release-recapture of virgin males and females in natural houses showed that mating occurred over a single day even when mosquitoes can leave the house through exit traps and without adaptation to laboratory conditions. In these(More)
In the Sahel, the Anopheles gambiae complex consists of Anopheles arabiensis and the M and S molecular forms of A. gambiae sensu stricto. However, the composition of these malaria vectors varies spatially and temporally throughout the region and is thought to be linked to environmental factors such as rainfall, larval site characteristics and duration of(More)
Malaria in Africa is vectored primarily by the Anopheles gambiae complex. Although the mechanisms of population persistence during the dry season are not yet known, targeting dry season mosquitoes could provide opportunities for vector control. In the Sahel, it appears likely that M-form A. gambiae survive by aestivation (entering a dormant state). To(More)
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