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Polysialic acid (PSA), a large cell-surface carbohydrate that regulates cell interactions, is used during vertebrate development to promote precursor cell migration and axon path-finding. The induction of PSA expression in damaged adult CNS tissues could help them to rebuild by creating conditions permissive for architectural remodeling. This possibility(More)
Schwann cell (SC) implantation after spinal cord injury (SCI) promotes axonal regeneration, remyelination repair, and functional recovery. Reparative efficacy, however, may be limited because of the inability of SCs to migrate outward from the lesion-implant site. Altering SC cell surface properties by overexpressing polysialic acid (PSA) has been shown to(More)
Developing chick retinotectal projections extend rostrally in the superficial stratum opticum of the tectum until they reach their appropriate target zone. They then penetrate, arborize, and form synapses within distinct tectal retinorecipient layers. In this study, we show that the polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule is expressed both on the(More)
Chronic immobilization stress (CIS) shortens apical dendritic trees of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of the male rat, and dendritic length may be a determinant of vulnerability to stress. Expression of the polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) in the hippocampal formation is increased by stress, while PSA removal by(More)
Under chronic conditions of neuropathic pain, nociceptive C terminals are lost from their target region in spinal lamina II, leading to reduced thermal hyperalgesia. This region of the spinal cord expresses high levels of polysialic acid (PSA), a cell surface carbohydrate known to weaken cell-cell interactions and promote plasticity. Experimental removal of(More)
There has been considerable progress in obtaining engraftable embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived midbrain dopamine neurons for cell replacement therapy in models of Parkinson's disease; however, limited integration and striatal reinnervation of ES-derived grafts remain a major challenge for future clinical translation. In this paper, we show that enhanced(More)
Neurons that express high levels of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) in adult spinal substantia gelatinosa also express the μ-opioid receptor. While PSA removal from NCAM by spinal intrathecal injection of endoneuraminidase-N (endo-N) did not detectably change opioid receptor expression, morphine-induced analgesia was significantly(More)
In vertebrates, polysialic acid (PSA) is typically added to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in the Golgi by PST or STX polysialyltransferase. PSA promotes plasticity, and its enhanced expression by viral delivery of the PST or STX gene has been shown to promote cellular processes that are useful for repair of the injured adult nervous system. Here(More)
Spinal lamina II, where nociceptive C-fibers terminate, expresses high amounts of the polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM). While enzymatic removal of the PSA moiety from NCAM did not affect normal sensitivity to thermal stimuli, it exacerbated nerve injury-induced neuropathic hyperalgesia. The genetic removal of the NCAM core(More)
Motoneurons (MNs) derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) begin to express low levels of polysialic acid (PSA) at the time when they acquire an ability to migrate and extend neurites. PSA is known to promote cell migration and process outgrowth/guidance in the developing nervous system. To test if experimentally enhanced expression of PSA would(More)