Abdelmalik Moujahid

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The generation of spikes by neurons is energetically a costly process and the evaluation of the metabolic energy required to maintain the signaling activity of neurons a challenge of practical interest. Neuron models are frequently used to represent the dynamics of real neurons but hardly ever to evaluate the electrochemical energy required to maintain that(More)
The origin, migration, and differentiation of microglial precursors in the avascular quail retina during embryonic and posthatching development were examined in this study. Microglial precursors and developing microglia were immunocytochemically labeled with QH1 antibody in retinal whole mounts and sections. The retina was free of QH1+ macrophages at(More)
It has long been known that neurons in the brain are not physiologically homogeneous. In response to current stimulus, they can fire several distinct patterns of action potentials that are associated with different physiological classes ranging from regular-spiking cells, fast-spiking cells, intrinsically bursting cells, and low-threshold cells. In this(More)
The development of microglia in the quail optic tectum from embryonic day 6 to adulthood was studied by using the QH1 monoclonal antibody. In youngest tecta, microglial cells were scarcely present, but their number rose in subsequent stages. A clear pattern of microglial cell distribution was observable in embryos of 9-16 days. (1) Round cells appeared(More)
The monoclonal antibody QH1, which recognizes quail endothelial and hemopoietic cells, was found to label microglia in the developing and mature brain of the quail. Forms of microglia similar to those described in mammals were labelled. Ameboid microglia predominated at embryonic stages, became less numerous in late embryonic development, and disappeared(More)
Cell death is frequent during the development of the nervous system. In the developing optic nerve of chicks and quails, neuroepithelial cell death was first observable on the third day of incubation, slightly after the first cell ganglion axons appeared in the stalk. Specialized phagocytes were observed within the stalk in chronological and topographical(More)
Immunocytochemical techniques were used in conjunction with the QH1 antibody to study the morphological characteristics and distribution of microglia in the avascular retina of an avian species (the quail). The majority of microglial cells appeared in the outer and inner plexiform layers throughout the entire retina, whereas a few microglial cells in the(More)
In this paper we present a method based on a generalized Hamiltonian formalism to associate to a chaotic system of known dynamics a function of the phase space variables with the characteristics of an energy. Using this formalism we have found energy functions for the Lorenz, Rössler, and Chua families of chaotic oscillators. We have theoretically analyzed(More)
Fundamentally, action potentials in the squid axon are consequence of the entrance of sodium ions during the depolarization of the rising phase of the spike mediated by the outflow of potassium ions during the hyperpolarization of the falling phase. Perfect metabolic efficiency with a minimum charge needed for the change in voltage during the action(More)