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The generation of spikes by neurons is energetically a costly process and the evaluation of the metabolic energy required to maintain the signaling activity of neurons a challenge of practical interest. Neuron models are frequently used to represent the dynamics of real neurons but hardly ever to evaluate the electrochemical energy required to maintain that(More)
It has long been known that neurons in the brain are not physiologically homogeneous. In response to current stimulus, they can fire several distinct patterns of action potentials that are associated with different physiological classes ranging from regular-spiking cells, fast-spiking cells, intrinsically bursting cells, and low-threshold cells. In this(More)
In this paper we present a method based on a generalized Hamiltonian formalism to associate to a chaotic system of known dynamics a function of the phase space variables with the characteristics of an energy. Using this formalism we have found energy functions for the Lorenz, Rössler, and Chua families of chaotic oscillators. We have theoretically analyzed(More)
Fundamentally, action potentials in the squid axon are consequence of the entrance of sodium ions during the depolarization of the rising phase of the spike mediated by the outflow of potassium ions during the hyperpolarization of the falling phase. Perfect metabolic efficiency with a minimum charge needed for the change in voltage during the action(More)
The generation of spikes by neurons is energetically a costly process. This paper studies the consumption of energy and the information entropy in the signalling activity of a model neuron both when it is supposed isolated and when it is coupled to another neuron by an electrical synapse. The neuron has been modelled by a four-dimensional Hindmarsh-Rose(More)
Keywords: Visual face tracking 3D deformable models Facial actions Dynamic facial expression recognition Human–computer interaction a b s t r a c t In this paper, we address the analysis and recognition of facial expressions in continuous videos. More precisely, we study classifiers performance that exploit head pose independent temporal facial action(More)