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In this paper we describe a new memory test in rats, based on the differential exploration of familiar and new objects. In a first trial (T1), rats are exposed to one or to two identical objects (samples) and in a second trial, to two dissimilar objects, a familiar (the sample) and a new one. For short intertrial intervals (approximately 1 min), most rats(More)
The one-trial object recognition task involves memory of a familiar object in parallel with the detection and encoding of a novel object. It provides the basis for the study of a wide range of cognitive and neuropsychological functions and processes in rats and mice. However, unlike in humans, primate and pigeon studies, object recognition in rats and mice(More)
Rats were submitted to object and spatial recognition tests (both based on the same paradigm) and to the radial-arm maze. The results are as follows: (1) rats could discriminate between a new and a familiar object when the retention delay was 1 min, 15 min or 60 min but not 24 h. The relationship between the level of discrimination and intertrial delays is(More)
Non-thermal near infra-red (IR) has been shown to have many beneficial photobiological effects on a range of cell types, including neurons. In the present study, a pretreatment with a daily 6 min exposure to IR1072 for 10 days yielded a number of significant behavioral effects on middle-aged female CD-1 mice (12-months) tested in a 3D-maze. Middle-aged mice(More)
Training animals in spatial mazes have always been preceded by prior habituation to the test apparatus and testing conditions with the main goal to reduce fear and anxiety from exposure to the unfamiliar maze environment. This approach makes assumptions about the baseline level of emotionality in animals without actual objective measurements. It also(More)
The present study, examines some issues in the measure and analysis of behavior in animals. Two strains of rats of both genders were used to illustrate and discuss these issues. We examined to what extent various behavioral measures reflect different or identical emotional or cognitive factors and, how sensitive are the various parameters of a task to(More)
Exposure to novelty has been shown to induce anxiety responses in a variety of behavioural paradigms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether exposition of naïve rats to novelty would result in a comparable or a different pattern of responses in an open space versus enclosed space with or without the presence of an object in the centre(More)
Traveling across time zones causes disruption to the normal circadian rhythms and social schedules because of travelers' shift in time. As the endogenous circadian timing system adapts slowly to new time cues, the phase relationship between biological rhythms and external time cues are out of synchronization for a period of time. This disturbance of(More)
The present report describes the emotional responses of different strains of mice to exposure to a novel open space model of anxiety using a 3D spatial navigation task. The 3D maze is modification of the radial maze with flexible arms that can be raised above or lowered below the horizontal level of a central platform. To access the arms animals need to(More)
Three set of experiments were performed in an enclosed space (open-field) and in an open space (elevated platform). The surface of the open-field and the elevated platform were divided in nine equal squares. Rats were exposed (without previous habituation) in a unique session (experiment 1) or three consecutive sessions (experiment 2) either to an(More)