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The effects of perirhinal (Prh) and fornix (Fx) lesions were compared on a series of spatial and nonspatial memory tests. These tests included delayed nonmatching-to-position in an operant chamber, a spatial (lever) discrimination and its subsequent reversals, delayed spatial alternation in a T-maze, and an object recognition memory test using both normal(More)
 The first experiment assessed the effects of neurotoxic lesions in either the anterior cingulate cortex (ACc) or the retrosplenial cortex (RSc) on a test of object recognition. Neither lesion affected performance on this task, which takes advantage of the rat’s normal preference to spend more time investigating novel rather than familiar stimuli. In(More)
The effects of fornix lesions were examined in an object recognition memory test based on spontaneous exploration. In the standard condition an object (A) was presented in the sample phase and then presented again in the test phase alongside a new object (B). Both fornix-transected (Fx) and control (Co) rats spent more time exploring the new object than the(More)
The effects of lesions centred in the perirhinal cortex region (Prh) or in both the perirhinal cortex region and the fornix (Prh + Fx) were assessed in two different working memory tasks, one spatial the other nonspatial. For the spatial task the rats were tested in an eight arm radial maze, using a standard procedure in which they were rewarded for(More)
The effects of physostigmine and scopolamine were evaluated on working memory of rats in object recognition and radial-maze tests. Three doses of physostigmine hemi-sulfate (Phys: 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mg/kg), five doses of scopolamine hydrobromide (Scop: 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg), and one dose of scopolamine methylbromide (Mscop: 2.0 mg/kg) were(More)
The one-trial object recognition task involves memory of a familiar object in parallel with the detection and encoding of a novel object. It provides the basis for the study of a wide range of cognitive and neuropsychological functions and processes in rats and mice. However, unlike in humans, primate and pigeon studies, object recognition in rats and mice(More)
Non-thermal near infra-red (IR) has been shown to have many beneficial photobiological effects on a range of cell types, including neurons. In the present study, a pretreatment with a daily 6 min exposure to IR1072 for 10 days yielded a number of significant behavioral effects on middle-aged female CD-1 mice (12-months) tested in a 3D-maze. Middle-aged mice(More)
Training animals in spatial mazes have always been preceded by prior habituation to the test apparatus and testing conditions with the main goal to reduce fear and anxiety from exposure to the unfamiliar maze environment. This approach makes assumptions about the baseline level of emotionality in animals without actual objective measurements. It also(More)
This report describes a behavioral test protocol for assessing anxiety in mice and rats in single or multiple sessions. The test is based on exposure of animals to an open-space elevated platform with suspended steep slopes attached on two opposite sides. In this test, all animals cross frequently onto and spend more time in the areas adjacent to slopes(More)
The present study, examines some issues in the measure and analysis of behavior in animals. Two strains of rats of both genders were used to illustrate and discuss these issues. We examined to what extent various behavioral measures reflect different or identical emotional or cognitive factors and, how sensitive are the various parameters of a task to(More)