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Most current speech recognition systems use hidden Markov models (HMMs) to deal with the temporal variability of speech and Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to determine how well each state of each HMM fits a frame or a short window of frames of coefficients that represents the acoustic input. An alternative way to evaluate the fit is to use a feed-forward(More)
Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are a powerful model for sequential data. End-to-end training methods such as Connectionist Temporal Classification make it possible to train RNNs for sequence labelling problems where the input-output alignment is unknown. The combination of these methods with the Long Short-term Memory RNN architecture has proved(More)
[ Four research groups share their views ] <AU: pleAse check thAt Added sUbtitle is Ok As given Or pleAse sUpply shOrt AlternAtive> M ost current speech recognition systems use hidden Markov models (HMMs) to deal with the temporal variability of speech and Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to determine how well each state of each HMM fits a frame or a short(More)
Gaussian mixture models are currently the dominant technique for modeling the emission distribution of hidden Markov models for speech recognition. We show that better phone recognition on the TIMIT dataset can be achieved by replacing Gaussian mixture models by deep neural networks that contain many layers of features and a very large number of parameters.(More)
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have showed success in achieving translation invariance for many image processing tasks. The success is largely attributed to the use of local filtering and max-pooling in the CNN architecture. In this paper, we propose to apply CNN to speech recognition within the framework of hybrid NN-HMM model. We propose to use local(More)
Deep Bidirectional LSTM (DBLSTM) recurrent neural networks have recently been shown to give state-of-the-art performance on the TIMIT speech database. However, the results in that work relied on recurrent-neural-network-specific objective functions, which are difficult to integrate with existing large vocabulary speech recognition systems. This paper(More)
Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) have been the state-of-the-art techniques for acoustic modeling despite their unrealistic independence assumptions and the very limited representational capacity of their hidden states. There are many proposals in the research community for deeper models that are capable of modeling the many types of variability present in the(More)
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are an alternative type of neural network that can be used to reduce spectral variations and model spectral correlations which exist in signals. Since speech signals exhibit both of these properties, CNNs are a more effective model for speech compared to Deep Neural Networks (DNNs). In this paper, we explore applying(More)
Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) are a very competitive alternative to Gaussian mixture models for relating states of a hidden Markov model to frames of coefficients derived from the acoustic input. They are competitive for three reasons: DBNs can be fine-tuned as neural networks; DBNs have many non-linear hidden layers; and DBNs are generatively pre-trained.(More)
Straightforward application of Deep Belief Nets (DBNs) to acoustic modeling produces a rich distributed representation of speech data that is useful for recognition and yields impressive results on the speaker-independent TIMIT phone recognition task. However, the first-layer Gaussian-Bernoulli Restricted Boltzmann Machine (GRBM) has an important(More)