Abby R Kroken

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Botulinum Neurotoxins (BoNTs) are organized into seven serotypes, A-G. Although several BoNT serotypes enter neurons through synaptic vesicle cycling utilizing dual receptors (a ganglioside and a synaptic vesicle-associated protein), the entry pathway of BoNT/D is less well understood. Although BoNT/D entry is ganglioside-dependent, alignment and structural(More)
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) are the most toxic proteins for humans. While BoNTs cause flaccid paralysis, TeNT causes spastic paralysis. Characterized BoNT serotypes enter neurons upon binding dual receptors, a ganglioside and a neuron-specific protein, either synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) or synaptotagmin, while TeNT(More)
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic proteins for humans but also are common therapies for neurological diseases. BoNTs are dichain toxins, comprising an N-terminal catalytic domain (LC) disulfide bond linked to a C-terminal heavy chain (HC) which includes a translocation domain (HN) and a receptor binding domain (HC). Recently, the BoNT(More)
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