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Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) are the most toxic proteins for humans. While BoNTs cause flaccid paralysis, TeNT causes spastic paralysis. Characterized BoNT serotypes enter neurons upon binding dual receptors, a ganglioside and a neuron-specific protein, either synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) or synaptotagmin, while TeNT(More)
Botulinum Neurotoxins (BoNTs) are organized into seven serotypes, A-G. Although several BoNT serotypes enter neurons through synaptic vesicle cycling utilizing dual receptors (a ganglioside and a synaptic vesicle-associated protein), the entry pathway of BoNT/D is less well understood. Although BoNT/D entry is ganglioside-dependent, alignment and structural(More)
The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent protein toxins for humans. There are seven serotypes of BoNTs (A-G) based on a lack of cross antiserum neutralization. BoNTs utilize gangliosides as components of the host receptors for binding and entry into neurons. Members of BoNT/C and BoNT/D serotypes include mosaic toxins that are organized in D/C(More)
The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent protein toxins for humans. There are seven serotypes of BoNTs (A-G), based on a lack of cross-antiserum neutralization. The BoNT/C and BoNT/D serotypes include mosaic toxins that are organized as D-C and C-D toxins. One BoNT D-C mosaic toxin, BoNT/D-South Africa (BoNT/D-SA), was not fully neutralized by(More)
The need for a vaccine against botulism has increased since the discontinuation of the pentavalent (ABCDE) botulinum toxoid vaccine by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The botulinum toxins (BoNTs) are the primary virulence factors and vaccine components against botulism. BoNTs comprise three domains which are involved in catalysis (LC),(More)
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic proteins for humans but also are common therapies for neurological diseases. BoNTs are dichain toxins, comprising an N-terminal catalytic domain (LC) disulfide bond linked to a C-terminal heavy chain (HC) which includes a translocation domain (HN) and a receptor binding domain (HC). Recently, the BoNT(More)
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