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Estrogen can influence the expression of behaviors not associated directly with reproduction, including learning and memory. However, the effects of estrogen on learning and memory in mammals are complex, dependent on a variety of factors. The radial arm maze is a traditional experimental task that takes advantage of the natural foraging strategy of rats(More)
Primary care physicians frequently provide contraceptive counseling to women who are interested in family planning, have medical conditions that may be worsened by pregnancy, or have medical conditions that necessitate the use of potentially teratogenic medications. Effective counseling requires up-to-date knowledge about hormonal contraceptive methods that(More)
Abraham Flexner persuaded the medical establishment of his time that teaching the sciences, from basic to clinical, should be a critical component of the medical student curriculum, thus giving rise to the "preclinical curriculum." However, students' retention of basic science material after the preclinical years is generally poor. The authors believe that(More)
Clinician Educators (CEs) play an essential role in the education and patient care missions of academic medical centers. Despite their crucial role, academic advancement is slower for CEs than for other faculty. Increased clinical productivity demands and financial stressors at academic medical centers add to the existing challenges faced by CEs. This(More)
The safe transfer (handoff) of responsibility for patient care from one physician to another requires that health care facilities have rigorous sign-out systems and that physicians develop effective communication skills. In 2007 and 2008, to improve the spoken and written sign-out practices of the 25 interns at Allegheny General Hospital (Pittsburgh,(More)
OBJECTIVE Although residents in internal medicine (IM) and obstetrics-gynecology (OG) must provide primary care for women, studies indicate that both groups require more skills and training in women's health. Our goals were to assess the needs of residents at our academic medical center and to design an interdisciplinary curriculum that addresses these(More)
BACKGROUND Women's health tracks (WHTs) were developed to overcome identified deficiencies in residency training. Their effectiveness in preparing residents to manage both gender-neutral and gender-specific medical conditions is unknown. METHODS Using current guidelines for internal medicine training, we designed a 65-item survey to measure residents'(More)
Primary care physicians often prescribe contraceptives to women of reproductive age with comorbidities. Novel delivery systems (e.g., contraceptive patch, contraceptive ring, single-rod implantable device) may change traditional risk and benefit profiles in women with comorbidities. Effective contraceptive counseling requires an understanding of a woman's(More)
Effective contraceptive counseling requires an understanding of a woman's preferences and medical history as well as the risks, benefits, side effects, and contraindications of each contraceptive method. Hormonal contraceptives using a variety of delivery methods are highly effective and this review highlights the new extended-cycle levonorgestrel-ethinyl(More)