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Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is an essential factor in dorsoventral patterning of animal embryos but how BMP signaling evolved with fundamental changes in dorsoventral tissue differentiation is unclear. Flies experienced an evolutionary reduction of extra-embryonic tissue types from two (amniotic and serosal tissue) to one (amnionserosal(More)
In nature, plants are often exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses, severely affecting their growth and development and reducing their productivity. Future predicted adverse climatic changes might threaten the very sustainability of crop production worldwide. Various approaches ought to be explored to deal with the challenges of sustained crop(More)
Most scientists are familiar with the basic tenet of evolutionary biology " mutation proposes , selection disposes, " where random variation generated by mutation is thought to provide the fuel for natural selection to direct evolutionary change. If this is truly a basic tenet, then why have prominent evolutionary biologists expressed concern about the(More)
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