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The production of pediocin PA-1, a small heat-stable bacteriocin, is associated with the presence of the 9.4-kbp plasmid pSRQ11 in Pediococcus acidilactici PAC1.0. It was shown by subcloning of pSRQ11 in Escherichia coli cloning vectors that pediocin PA-1 is produced and, most probably, secreted by E. coli cells. Deletion analysis showed that a 5.6-kbp(More)
The structural gene and the regulatory DNA sequence of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha methanol oxidase have been isolated. According to the nucleotide sequence data obtained, the structural gene encodes a 664 amino acids long protein, contains no intervening sequences, and the 5'- and 3'-non-coding region contains several sequences implicated in(More)
A 6.5-kilobase HindIII fragment that specifies the proteolytic activity of Streptococcus cremoris Wg2 was sequenced entirely. The nucleotide sequence revealed two open reading frames (ORFs), a small ORF1 with 295 codons and a large ORF2 containing 1,772 codons. For both ORFs, there was no stop codon on the HindIII fragment. A partially overlapping PstI(More)
Directly upstream of the Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2 proteinase gene is an oppositely directed open reading frame (ORF1). The complete nucleotide sequence of ORF1, encoding a 33-kilodalton protein, was determined. A protein of approximately 32 kilodaltons was synthesized when ORF1 was expressed in Escherichia coli by using a T7 RNA(More)
Pediocin PA-1 is a bacteriocin which is produced by Pediococcus acidilactici PAC1.0. We demonstrate that pediocin PA-1 kills sensitive Pediococcus cells and acts on the cytoplasmic membrane. In contrast to its lack of impact on immune cells, pediocin PA-1 dissipates the transmembrane electrical potential and inhibits amino acid transport in sensitive cells.(More)
The advantages of Hansenula polymorpha as a new yeast expression system are discussed in terms of the powerful and regulatable methanol oxidase promoter and the organism's ability to grow on cheap carbon sources. The development of techniques for conventional genetic analysis is described. A total of 218 mutants have been assigned to 62 complementation(More)
Bacteriophage p2 belongs to the most prevalent lactococcal phage group (936) responsible for considerable losses in industrial production of cheese. Immunization of a llama with bacteriophage p2 led to higher titers of neutralizing heavy-chain antibodies (i.e., devoid of light chains) than of the classical type of immunoglobulins. A panel of p2-specific(More)
The bacteriocin pediocin PA-1 operon of Pediococcus acidilactici PAC1.0 encompasses four genes: pedA, pedB, pedC and pedD. Transcription of the operon results in the formation of two overlapping transcripts, probably originating from a single promoter upstream of pedA. The major transcript comprises pedA, pedB, and pedC, while a minor transcript encompasses(More)
Bacteriophage infection is still a persistent problem in large dairy processes despite extensive studies over the last decades. Consequently, new methods are constantly sought to prevent phage infection. In this paper, we show that phage neutralizing heavy-chain antibody fragments, obtained from Camelidae and produced at a large scale in the generally(More)