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The segment polarity genes patched (ptc) and hedgehog (hh) are thought to encode a receptor and signal molecule respectively, components of a signal transduction pathway that regulates the transcription of the wingless gene in the Drosophila embryo. Here we describe the production of antibodies specific for the products of these two genes and the patterns(More)
BACKGROUND The Drosophila segment polarity gene hedgehog encodes a member of a family of secreted proteins that are involved in a variety of patterning processes, in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Some of these processes depend upon short-range or contact-dependent interactions, whereas others seem to involve long-range signalling. Two different models(More)
Subcortical connections of the superior colliculus were investigated in albino and pigmented rats using retrograde and anterograde tracing with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), following unilateral injection of HRP into the superior colliculus. Afferents project bilaterally from the parabigeminal nuclei, the nucleus of the optic tract, the posterior pretectal(More)
After cellularization of the Drosophila embryo, positional differences within each primordial segment are maintained and elaborated by processes that require cell interactions. The best-documented examples of such intercellular signalling are the mutual interactions between neighbouring cells expressing the homeodomain protein engrailed and the secreted(More)
The patterning of cells in insect segments requires the exchange of information between cells, which in Drosophila depends on the activity of members of the segment-polarity class of genes. Here we report the molecular characterization of one such gene, patched. We find that patched encodes a large protein with several possible membrane-spanning domains and(More)
The tumor suppressor gene patched (ptc) encodes an approximately 140 kDa polytopic transmembrane protein [1-3] [corrected] that binds members of the Hedgehog (Hh) family of signaling proteins [4-6] [corrected] and regulates the activity of Smoothened (Smo), a G protein-coupled receptor-like protein essential for Hh signal transduction [7-9] [corrected]. Ptc(More)
Hedgehog (Hh) signalling plays a central role in many developmental processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates [1]. The multipass membrane-spanning proteins Patched (Ptc) [2-4] and Smoothened (Smo) [5-7] have been proposed to act as subunits of a putative Hh receptor complex. According to this view, Smo functions as the transducing subunit, the(More)
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase is a eukaryotic chromosomal enzyme which utilizes the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD to synthesize the nucleic acid homopolymer (ADP-ribose)n (ref. 1). The precise function of (ADP-ribose)n has not been fully established although it does covalently modify chromosomal proteins by ADP-ribosylation. Here we demonstrate that gamma-ray(More)
Retinorecipient regions of the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and the superior colliculus of the midbrain are linked by reciprocal axonal projections. In this study we have investigated the ultrastructural characteristics, the distribution, and the postsynaptic targets of the terminals of axons projecting to the ventral lateral(More)
Children with exceptional learning needs find it very difficult to retain content information from the regular curriculum. Many content teachers also find it difficult to adapt curriculum to the learning needs of these exception children within the confines of the classroom and without any assistance. Although many schools are equipped with technology(More)