Aarti C. Naik

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The composition and architecture of the stratum corneum render it a formidable barrier to the topical and transdermal administration of therapeutic agents. The physicochemical constraints severely limit the number of molecules that can be considered as realistic candidates for transdermal delivery. Iontophoresis provides a mechanism to enhance the(More)
The use of skin as an alternative route for administering systemically active drugs has attracted considerable interest in recent years. However, the skin provides an excellent barrier, which limits the number of drug molecules suitable for transdermal delivery. Thus, in order to improve cutaneous delivery, it is necessary to adopt an enhancement method,(More)
Encapsulation using nanoparticulate systems is an increasingly implemented strategy in drug targeting and delivery. Such systems have also been proposed for topical administration to enhance percutaneous transport into and across the skin barrier. However, the mechanism by which such particulate formulations facilitate skin transport remains ambiguous. In(More)
The poor penetration of drugs into the skin (and, partially, the permeation across the stratum corneum) often limits the efficacy of topical formulations. Basically, skin penetration can be enhanced by the following strategies: (i) increasing drug diffusivity in the skin; (ii) increasing drug solubility in the skin, and/or (iii) increasing the degree of(More)
Purpose. To determine whether and how encapsulation of lipophilic compounds in polymeric nanoparticles is able to improve topical delivery to the skin. Methods. The penetration of octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC; Parsol MCX), a highly lipophilic sunscreen, into and across porcine ear skin in vitro was investigated, subsequent to encapsulation in(More)
The objective was to investigate pig ear skin as a surrogate for human skin in the assessment of topical drug bioavailability by sequential tape-stripping of the stratum corneum (SC). The potential benefits of ex vivo investigations are manifold: ethical approval is not required, multiple replicate experiments are more easily performed, and toxic compounds(More)
This paper reviews some current methods for the in vivo assessment of local cutaneous bioavailability in humans after topical drug application. After an introduction discussing the importance of local drug bioavailability assessment and the limitations of model-based predictions, the focus turns to the relevance of experimental studies. The available(More)
Biosimilars are more affordable copycat versions of originator biological products in much the same way as generics are copies of small molecule pharmaceuticals. However, while generics are approved on the basis of structural and pharmacokinetic equivalence, the intricate structure of biological medicinal products and the complex nature of their(More)
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, piroxicam, was administered from a commercially available gel to human volunteers both passively and under the application of an iontophoretic current. The effect of occlusion on the passive delivery of piroxicam was also examined in a separate series of experiments. After treatment, the stratum corneum (SC) at the(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of delivering vapreotide, a somatostatin analogue, by transdermal iontophoresis. In vitro experiments were conducted using dermatomed porcine ear skin and heat-separated epidermis. In addition to quantifying vapreotide transport into and across the skin, the effect of peptide delivery on skin(More)