Aaron W. Michels

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In the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D), an insulin peptide (B:9-23) is a major target for pathogenic CD4(+) T cells. However, there is no consensus on the relative importance of the various positions or "registers" this peptide can take when bound in the groove of the NOD MHCII molecule, IA(g7). This has hindered structural(More)
The autoimmune polyglandular syndromes-a group of syndromes comprising a combination of endocrine and nonendocrine autoimmune diseases-differ in their component diseases and in the immunologic features of their pathogenesis. One of the three main syndromes, type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS-1), has a unique pathogenic mechanism owing to(More)
CONTEXT Few studies have assessed factors associated with severe hypoglycemia (SH) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). OBJECTIVE Our objective was to determine frequency of and factors associated with the occurrence of SH and DKA in adults with T1D. DESIGN AND SETTING We conducted a cross-sectional analysis from the T1D(More)
BACKGROUND Previous efforts to preserve β cell function in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have focused largely on the use of single immunomodulatory agents administered within 100 days of diagnosis. Based on human and preclinical studies, we hypothesized that a combination of low-dose anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) and pegylated granulocyte CSF(More)
CONTEXT Recent studies have implicated proinflammatory responses in the mechanism of type 1 diabetes (T1D). OBJECTIVE Our objective was to evaluate the safety and effects of therapy with the anti-inflammatory serum protein α1-antitrypsin (AAT) on islet function and innate immunity in recent-onset patients. DESIGN AND SETTING This was an open-label phase(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disorder resulting from immune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreatic islets. Prediction of T1D is now possible, as having 2 or more islet autoantibodies confers a 100% risk of diabetes development. With the ability to predict disease development, clinical trials to prevent(More)
Certain class II MHC (MHCII) alleles in mice and humans confer risk for or protection from type 1 diabetes (T1D). Insulin is a major autoantigen in T1D, but how its peptides are presented to CD4 T cells by MHCII risk alleles has been controversial. In the mouse model of T1D, CD4 T cells respond to insulin B-chain peptide (B:9-23) mimotopes engineered to(More)
Primary adrenal insufficiency, or Addison disease, has many causes, the most common of which is autoimmune adrenalitis. Autoimmune adrenalitis results from destruction of the adrenal cortex, which leads to deficiencies in glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and adrenal androgens. In the United States and Western Europe, the estimated prevalence of Addison(More)
Type 1 diabetes results from a chronic autoimmune process continuing for years after presentation. We tested whether treatment with teplizumab (a Fc receptor non-binding anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody), after the new-onset period, affects the decline in C-peptide production in individuals with type 1 diabetes. In a randomised placebo-controlled trial we(More)
Type 1 diabetes results from chronic autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing β-cells within pancreatic islets. Although insulin is a critical self-antigen in animal models of autoimmune diabetes, due to extremely limited access to pancreas samples, little is known about human antigenic targets for islet-infiltrating T cells. Here we show that proinsulin(More)