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How is development of cortical maps in V1 coordinated across cortical layers to form cortical columns? Previous neural models propose how maps of orientation (OR), ocular dominance (OD), and related properties develop in V1. These models show how spontaneous activity, before eye opening, combined with correlation learning and competition, can generate maps(More)
Drawing a box around an intended segmentation target has become both a popular user interface and a common output for learning-driven detection algorithms. Despite the ubiquity of using a box to define a segmentation target, it is unclear in the literature whether a box is sufficient to define a unique segmentation or whether segmentation from a box is(More)
AIMS Pulmonary infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are a serious clinical problem and are often lethal. Because many strains of P. aeruginosa are resistant to antibiotics, therapeutic options are limited. Neutrophils play an important role in the host's early acute defense against pulmonary P. aeruginosa. Therefore, it is important to define the(More)
BACKGROUND Hematogenous metastasis of malignant tumor cells is a multistep process that requires release of tumor cells from the local tumor mass, interaction of the tumor cells with platelets in the blood, and adhesion of either the activated tumor cells or the complexes of platelets and tumor cells to the endothelial cells of the target organ. We have(More)
The sepsis syndrome represents an improper immune response to infection and is associated with unacceptably high rates of mortality and morbidity. The interactions between T cells and the innate immune system while combating sepsis are poorly understood. In this report, we observed that treatment with the potent, antiapoptotic cytokine interleukin-7 (IL-7)(More)
Survival during sepsis requires both swift control of infectious organisms and tight regulation of the associated inflammatory response. As the role of T cells in sepsis is somewhat controversial, we examined the impact of increasing antigen-dependent activation of CD4 T cells in a murine model of cecal ligation and puncture using T-cell receptor transgenic(More)
Acid sphingomyelinase and ceramide have previously been shown to play a central role in infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Mycobacterium avium. Recent studies have extended the role of sphingolipids in bacterial infections and have(More)
Chronic pulmonary colonization with bacterial pathogens, particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We observed that β1-integrins accumulate on the luminal membrane of upper-airway epithelial cells from mice and humans with CF. β1-integrin accumulation is due to increased(More)
Erythrocyte-derived microparticles (MPs) are sub-micrometer, biologically active vesicles shed by red blood cells as part of the biochemical changes that occur during storage. We hypothesized that MPs from stored red blood cells would activate endothelial cells. MPs from aged murine packed red blood cells (pRBCs) were isolated and used to treat confluent(More)