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The evolution of communicative signals involves a major hurdle; signals need to effectively stimulate the sensory systems of their targets. Therefore, sensory specializations of target animals are important sources of selection on signal structure. Here we report the discovery of an animal signal that uses a previously unknown communicative modality,(More)
A broad understanding of multimodal courtship function necessitates knowledge of the potential information content of signal components, the efficacy of signal components in eliciting the appropriate receiver response, and the fitness consequences of mating decisions based upon various signal components. We present data addressing each of these requirements(More)
Chimpanzees in west central Africa (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) are endemically infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVcpzPtt) that have crossed the species barrier to humans and gorillas on at least five occasions, generating pandemic and nonpandemic forms of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as well as gorilla SIV (SIVgor).(More)
Animal communication involves very dynamic processes that can generate new uses and functions for established communicative activities. In this article, the authors describe how an aposematic signal, the rattling sound of rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis), has been exploited by 2 ecological associates of rattlesnakes: (a) California ground squirrels(More)
The increased number of primates living in fragmented habitats necessitates greater knowledge of how they cope with large-scale changes to their environment. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are exceptionally vulnerable to forest fragmentation; however, little is known about chimpanzee feeding ecology in fragments. Although chimpanzees have been shown to(More)
Scientists from many distinct disciplines often use concepts such as habitat, environment, and niche to describe among other things the physical characteristics of the communicative worlds of animals. Often these descriptions center on the physical characteristics most salient to humans' perceptual systems. In this article, the authors advocate an approach(More)
Many primate populations currently live in forest fragments. These populations are often unhabituated, elusive, and contain few individuals, making them difficult to study through direct observation. Noninvasive genetic methods are useful for surveying these unhabituated populations to infer the number and sex of individuals and the genetic diversity of the(More)
Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in(More)
In this article, we employ robotic/mechatronic squirrel models for the study of ground squirrel/rattlesnake interaction, both in the laboratory and rugged natural environments. These robotic models are unique because they must interact with live, potentially hostile animals. Our robots are now being used for long-term this article, we employ(More)
The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the(More)