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In the past few years, it has become increasingly apparent that perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) is present on all continents, except the polar regions where it had not yet been assessed, and that it may have a significant natural source. Here, we report on the discovery of perchlorate in soil and ice from several Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADVs) where concentrations(More)
The light detection and ranging instrument on the Phoenix mission observed water-ice clouds in the atmosphere of Mars that were similar to cirrus clouds on Earth. Fall streaks in the cloud structure traced the precipitation of ice crystals toward the ground. Measurements of atmospheric dust indicated that the planetary boundary layer (PBL) on Mars was well(More)
[1] A model is presented here to explain the generation of surface material on Mars using chemical, magnetic, and spectroscopic data from Mars and geologic analogs from terrestrial sites. One basic premise is that the dust/soil units are not derived exclusively from local rocks, but are rather a product of global, and possibly remote, weathering processes.(More)
The Phoenix mission investigated patterned ground and weather in the northern arctic region of Mars for 5 months starting 25 May 2008 (solar longitude between 76.5 degrees and 148 degrees ). A shallow ice table was uncovered by the robotic arm in the center and edge of a nearby polygon at depths of 5 to 18 centimeters. In late summer, snowfall and frost(More)
Background: The Phoenix Mars Lander is the first spacecraft to explore a sub-polar latitude on Mars where subsurface ice is present [1]. It is also the first with the ability to do direct measurement of the atmospheric humidity in the boundary layer within 2 meters of the surface [2]. A relative humidity device (GE Paname-trics MiniCap 2 polymer relative(More)
The Nomad rover was deployed for 45 days in the Atacama Desert, Chile, during the summer of 1997. During this period, the rover set the record of the longest traverse ever performed by an automated vehicle (220 km), while controlled by operators either at NASA Ames and Carnegie Mellon. During this traverse , between June 20th and 27th, the rover was used to(More)
[1] The Phoenix mission's key objective was to search for a habitable zone. Mission results are used to evaluate habitability where Phoenix landed. A habitability probability (HI) is defined as the product of probabilities for the presence of liquid water (P lw), energy (P e), nutrients (P ch), and a benign environment (P b). Observational evidence for the(More)
Introduction: One of the major objectives of the Phoenix mission was to investigate the history of water in the Northern Plains, specifically by examining the characteristics of shallow ground ice. The global distribution of ground ice is consistent with diffusive equilibrium between the ice and atmspheric water vapor [1, 2]. Based on the assumption of a(More)
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