Aaron M. Kaplan

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This paper presents a detailed theoretical and experimental study of the impact of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) on self-phase modulation in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs). A theoretical model of pulse propagation in SOAs is developed that includes the ASE power and its effect on gainsaturation and gain-recovery. We study the impact of ASE(More)
The fate of 14C-labeled 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in an activated-sludge system was investigated. No [14C]TNT could be detected in the contents of an aerated reactor after 3 to 5 days of incubation. No significant 14CO2 was formed, and the radioactivity was about equally divided between the floc and the supernatant. The radioactive carbon present in the(More)
The biotransformations of 14C-labeled 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by thermophilic microorganisms in a compost system were determined. The reduction products identified in solvent extracts were similar to those identified in mesophilic systems. A significant percentage of the 14C-labeled products were bound to humus fractions.
One hundred laboratory-synthesized polyurethanes were tested by a mixed-culture petri dish method for susceptibility to fungus attack. Polyether polyurethanes were moderately to highly resistant to fungal attack, whereas all polyester polyurethanes tested were highly susceptible. The susceptibility of the polyethers was related to the number of adjacent(More)
The fate of glycerol trinitrate when exposed to microbial attack has been investigated. Contrary to some earlier reports, this compound was readily biodegraded by employing batch or continuous techniques under a variety of cultural conditions. Breakdown of glycerol trinitrate took place stepwise via the dinitrate and mononitrate isomers, with each(More)
The products of microbial transformation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene by Mucrosporium sp. were identified by thin-layer chromatography and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene, 4-amino-2-nitrotoluene, 2,2'-dinitro-4,4'-azoxytoluene, 4,4'-dinitro-2,2'-azoxytoluene, and 4-acetamido-2-nitrotoluene. A third azoxy compound, believed to be a(More)
N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was mineralized by microorganisms in aqueous and soil systems. Initial rates of mineralization (micrograms per milliliter per day) were calculated for a wide range of initial concentrations of NDMA (micrograms per milliliter to picograms per milliliter). Log-log plots of the data were fitted with both linear and nonlinear(More)
Halmer, T. M. “The Content of Nutrients in Household Refuse”, Proceedings of the conference Elmia-Avfalll976, Jonkoping, Sweden, 1976; chapter 7 , pp 1-14. Department of the Environment, Pollution Paper No. 17, “Cadmium in the Environment and Its Significance to Man”; HMSO, UK, 1980; ISBN 0 11 751475 6. Robinson, H. D.; Maris, P. J. “Leachate from Domestic(More)
When calcium hydroxide is used to desensitize glycerol trinitrate (nitroglycerine)-containing waste streams, the epoxides glycidol and glycidyl nitrate are formed. The epoxide rings of both compounds are unstable to heat in aqueous solutions, and they open to form glycerol 1-mononitrate and presumably glycerol. These transformations were accelerated by(More)