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Hypoglycemic coma and brain injury are potential complications of insulin therapy. Certain neurons in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex are uniquely vulnerable to hypoglycemic cell death, and oxidative stress is a key event in this cell death process. Here we show that hypoglycemia-induced oxidative stress and neuronal death are attributable primarily to(More)
Establishing precise synaptic connections is crucial to the development of functional neural circuits. The direction-selective circuit in the retina relies upon highly selective wiring of inhibitory inputs from starburst amacrine cells (SACs) onto four subtypes of ON-OFF direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs), each preferring motion in one of four(More)
Uptake of the neurotransmitter glutamate is effected primarily by transporters expressed on astrocytes, and downregulation of these transporters leads to seizures and neuronal death. Neurons also express a glutamate transporter, termed excitatory amino acid carrier-1 (EAAC1), but the physiological function of this transporter remains uncertain. Here we(More)
Hypoglycemia is a common and serious problem among diabetic patients receiving treatment with insulin or other glucose-lowering drugs. Moderate hypoglycemia impairs neurological function, and severe hypoglycemia leads to death of selectively vulnerable neurons. Recent advances have shed new light on the underlying processes that cause neuronal death in(More)
Several processes by which astrocytes protect neurons during ischemia are now well established. However, less is known about how neurons themselves may influence these processes. Neurons release zinc (Zn2+) from presynaptic terminals during ischemia, seizure, head trauma, and hypoglycemia, and modulate postsynaptic neuronal function. Peak extracellular zinc(More)
In investigating the role of metal ions in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease, we examined the effects of clioquinol, a metal-binding compound currently in clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease treatment, on mutant huntingtin-expressing cells. We found that PC12 cells expressing polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin exon 1 accumulated less mutant(More)
In the adult brain, neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG), where high levels of vesicular zinc are localized in the presynaptic terminals. To determine whether zinc has a role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis under normal or pathologic conditions, we manipulated the level of vesicular zinc experimentally. To reduce(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Most stroke patients do not present for medical treatment until several hours after onset of brain ischemia. Consequently, neuroprotective strategies are required with comparably long therapeutic windows. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors such as PJ34 are known to suppress microglial activation, a postischemic event that may(More)
The brain inflammatory response induced by stroke contributes to cell death and impairs neurogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a coactivator of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and required for NF-kappaB-mediated inflammatory responses. Here we evaluated PARP inhibition as a means of suppressing post-stroke inflammation and improving(More)
Oxidative stress and zinc release are both known to contribute to neuronal death after hypoglycemia; however, the cause-effect relationships between these events are not established. Here we found, using a rat model of profound hypoglycemia, that the neuronal zinc release and translocation that occur immediately after hypoglycemia are prevented by the(More)