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The main objective of this study was to determine whether bone-conducted vibration (BCV) is equally effective in activating both semicircular canal and otolith afferents in the guinea pig or whether there is preferential activation of one of these classes of vestibular afferents. To answer this question a large number (346) of single primary vestibular(More)
The response of the classical receptive field of visual neurons can be suppressed by stimuli that, when presented alone, cause no change in the discharge rate. This suppression reveals the presence of an extraclassical receptive field (ECRF). In recordings from the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of a New World primate, the marmoset, we characterize the(More)
The middle temporal area (MT/V5) is an anatomically distinct region of primate visual cortex that is specialized for the processing of image motion. It is generally thought that some neurons in area MT are capable of signalling the motion of complex patterns, but this has only been established in the macaque monkey. We made extracellular recordings from(More)
Calretinin is a member of the calcium-binding protein EF-hand family first identified in the retina. As with the other 200-plus calcium-binding proteins, calretinin serves a range of cellular functions including intracellular calcium buffering, messenger targeting, and is involved in processes such as cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Calcium-binding(More)
Most information on the properties of mammalian vestibular primary afferents has been obtained in deeply anesthetized animals, in vivo. Generally, non-human primates and larger rodents have been the species of choice. Investigations using smaller rodents, such as the laboratory mouse, have been limited despite the increasing availability of naturally(More)
Fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) is mediated by GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) and glycine receptors (GlyRs). To assess their relative contribution to inhibition in the MVN, we recorded miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in physiologically characterized type A and type B MVN neurons. Transverse(More)
Several parallel pathways convey retinal signals to the visual cortex of primates. The signals of the parvocellular (P) and magnocellular (M) pathways are well characterized; the properties of other rarely encountered cell types are distinctive in many ways, but it is not clear that they can provide signals with the same fidelity. Here we study this by(More)
It has long been known that the vast majority of all information en route to the cerebral cortex must first pass through the thalamus. The long held view that the thalamus serves as a simple hi fidelity relay station for sensory information to the cortex, however, has over recent years been dispelled. Indeed, multiple projections from the vestibular nuclei(More)
Prolonged exposure to an effective stimulus generally reduces the sensitivity of neurons early in the visual pathway. Yet eye and head movements bring about frequent changes in the retinal image, and it is less clear that exposure to brief presentations will produce similar desensitization. To address this, we made extracellular recordings from single(More)
Spontaneous activity in medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons is modulated by synaptic inputs. These inputs are crucial for maintaining gaze and posture and contribute to vestibular compensation after lesions of peripheral vestibular organs. We investigated how chronically attenuated glycinergic input affects excitability of MVN neurons. To this end we(More)