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Energy drinks containing caffeine, taurine, and glucose may improve mood and cognitive performance. However, there are no studies assessing the individual and interactive effects of these ingredients. We evaluated the effects of caffeine, taurine, and glucose alone and in combination on cognitive performance and mood in 24-hour caffeine-abstained habitual(More)
The body specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) posits that the way in which people interact with the world affects their mental representation of information. For instance, right- versus left-handedness affects the mental representation of affective valence, with right-handers categorically associating good with rightward areas and bad with leftward(More)
Navigators use both external cues and internal heuristics to help them plan efficient routes through environments. In six experiments, we discover and seek the origin of a novel heuristic that causes participants to preferentially choose southern rather than northern routes during map-based route planning. Experiment 1 demonstrates that participants who are(More)
Humans navigate complex environments effectively by identifying and monitoring environmental spatial cues (i.e., landmarks). Previous research has shown that affective states modulate cue utilization, attentional focus, and memory. Like other human behaviors, navigation is performed within an affective context and thus may fall under its influence. The(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of right versus left temporal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on navigation efficiency and spatial memory in individuals with low versus high spatial skills. A mixed design administered low (0.5 mA) versus high (2.0 mA) anodal tDCS (within-participants) over the right or the left temporal(More)
Learning a novel environment involves integrating first-person perceptual and motoric experiences with developing knowledge about the overall structure of the surroundings. The present experiments provide insights into the parallel development of these egocentric and allocentric memories by intentionally conflicting body- and world-centered frames of(More)
Two experiments examined how spatial learning perspectives support navigation through virtual urban environments. Participants briefly learned the overall layout of a virtual desktop environment, and then were taken on a simulated journey ending at a starting location within the environment. In Experiment 1, during the journey participants watched simulated(More)
In a classic psychological science experiment, Shepard and Metzler (1971) discovered that the time participants took to judge whether two rotated abstract block figures were identical increased monotonically with the figures' relative angular disparity. They posited that participants rotate mental images to achieve a match and that mental rotation recruits(More)