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We assessed the impacts of anthropogenic threats on 93 protected areas in 22 tropical countries to test the hypothesis that parks are an effective means to protect tropical biodiversity. We found that the majority of parks are successful at stopping land clearing, and to a lesser degree effective at mitigating logging, hunting, fire, and grazing. Park(More)
On the eve of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, it is timely to assess progress over the 10 years since its predecessor in Rio de Janeiro. Loss and degradation of remaining natural habitats has continued largely unabated. However, evidence has been accumulating that such systems generate marked economic benefits, which the available data suggest(More)
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The biological drivers of extinction and loss of ecosystem function have been well explored. Moreover, there is considerable international 'buy-in' for saving species and naturally functioning ecosystems that are enshrined within international agreements such as the Convention on Biological Diversity. But there is more to this story than conservation(More)
The climate benefit and economic cost of an international mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) will depend on the design of reference levels for crediting emission reductions. We compare the impacts of six proposed reference level designs on emission reduction levels and on cost per emission reduction using a stylized(More)
r t u n a te ly, scientists studying these c h a n ges have now acc u m u l a ted enough information to provide strong predictions of what can be expected if we do not intervene. Recent analyses suggest that in the next five years, for example, Mesoamerica (Mexico to Panama) is likely to lose 10% of its remaining natural vegetation, with the resulting(More)
This paper offers recommendations for responsible tourism and resort development in the tropics, to both minimize the industry's negative environmental and social impacts and increase the overall positive contribution of tourism to conservation and local well-being. It describes a series of management practices and technologies that developers can use to(More)
Data from legal records, management plans, and interviews with 63 local experts reveal the substantial expansion of 15 protected areas (PAs) of forest in Ecuador and Peru during the last two decades. Combining results for these PAs, the area under protection increased by over half, from 5,760,814 to 8,972,896 ha, with the Amazonian PAs adding the greatest(More)
References Alcala, A.C. (2000). Blast fi shing in the Philippines, with notes on two destructive fi shing activities. Workshop on the Status of Philippine Reefs 24, January. Challenges and opportunities for community participation for the management of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Philippines. (2000). Marine market transformation of the live reef fi(More)
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