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Arsenic mobility in natural environments is controlled primarily by sorption onto metal oxide surfaces, and the extent of this sorption may be influenced strongly by the presence of other dissolved substances that interact with surfaces or with arsenic itself. Natural organic matter (NOM), a prevalent constituent of natural waters, is highly reactive toward(More)
Dissolved constituents of crude oil, particularly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), can contribute substantially to the toxicity of aquatic organisms. Measured aqueous concentrations of high-molecular weight PAHs (e.g., chrysenes, benzo[a]pyrene) as well as long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons can exceed the theoretical solubility of these sparingly(More)
A spreadsheet model (PETROTOX) is described that predicts the aquatic toxicity of complex petroleum substances from petroleum substance composition. Substance composition is characterized by specifying mass fractions in constituent hydrocarbon blocks (HBs) based on available analytical information. The HBs are defined by their mass fractions within a(More)
Little is known about how people from different cultures experience and understand traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the process of brain injury rehabilitation. The Brain Injury Rehabilitation Unit (BIRU) undertook a qualitative project to research cultural variations in the understanding of TBI and the rehabilitation process, interviewing 39 people with TBI(More)
The complex nature and limited aqueous solubility of petroleum substances pose challenges for consistently characterizing exposures in aquatic life hazard assessments. This paper reviews important considerations for the design, conduct and interpretation of laboratory toxicity tests with physically and chemically dispersed oils based on an understanding of(More)
Cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMS) are important consumer materials that are used in personal care products and industrial applications. These compounds have gained increased attention in recent years following the implementation of chemical legislation programs worldwide. Industry-wide research programs are being conducted to characterize the(More)
Methods that quantify dissolved hydrocarbons are needed to link oil exposures to toxicity. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers can serve this purpose. If fibers are equilibrated with oiled water, dissolved hydrocarbons partition to and are concentrated on the fiber. The absorbed concentration (Cpolymer) can be quantified by thermal desorption using(More)
Cyanide can be toxic to aquatic organisms, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed ambient water-quality criteria to protect aquatic life. Recent work suggests that considering free, rather than total, cyanide provides a more accurate measure of the biological effects of cyanides and provides a basis for water-quality criteria. Aquatic(More)
Because of the large number of possible aromatic hydrocarbon structures, predictive toxicity models are needed to support substance hazard and risk assessments. Calibration and evaluation of such models requires toxicity data with well-defined exposures. The present study has applied a passive dosing method to generate reliable chronic effects data for 8(More)