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The function of the multi-PDZ domain scaffold protein GRIP1 (glutamate receptor interacting protein 1) in neurons is unclear. To explore the function of GRIP1 in hippocampal neurons, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down the expression of GRIP1. Knockdown of GRIP1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) in cultured hippocampal neurons caused a loss of(More)
AMPA-type glutamate receptors (GluRs) mediate most excitatory signaling in the brain and are composed of GluR principal subunits and transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP) auxiliary subunits. Previous studies identified four mammalian TARPs, gamma-2 (or stargazin), gamma-3, gamma-4, and gamma-8, that control AMPA receptor trafficking, gating,(More)
Glutamate receptors of the AMPA subtype (AMPARs) mediate fast synaptic transmission in the brain. These ionotropic receptors rely on auxiliary subunits known as transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs) for both trafficking and gating. Recently, a second family of AMPAR binding proteins, referred to as cornichons, were identified and also proposed to(More)
The properties of synaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs) depend on their subunit composition and association with transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs). Although both GluA2 incorporation and TARP association have been shown to influence AMPAR channel conductance, the manner in which different TARPs modulate the mean channel conductance of(More)
In traditional folk medicine, Xanthoxylum plants are referred to as 'toothache trees' because their anesthetic or counter-irritant properties render them useful in the treatment of pain. Psychophysical studies have identified hydroxy-alpha-sanshool as the compound most responsible for the unique tingling and buzzing sensations produced by Szechuan(More)
A family of transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) profoundly affects the trafficking and gating of AMPA receptors (AMPARs). Although TARP subtypes are differentially expressed throughout the CNS, it is unclear whether this imparts functional diversity to AMPARs in distinct neuronal populations. Here, we examine the effects of each TARP(More)
Neural activity regulates dendrite and synapse development, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is an important sensor of synaptic activity, and the scaffold protein liprinalpha1 is involved in pre- and postsynaptic maturation. Here we show that synaptic activity can suppress(More)
Presynaptic glutamate release elicits brief waves of membrane depolarization in neurons by activating AMPA receptors. Depending on its precise size and shape, current through AMPA receptors gates downstream processes like NMDA receptor activation and action potential generation. Over a decade of research on AMPA receptor structure and function has(More)
Previous work has established stargazin and its related family of transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) as auxiliary subunits of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) that control synaptic strength both by targeting AMPARs to synapses through an intracellular PDZ-binding motif and by modulating their gating through an extracellular domain. However,(More)
Synaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are regulated by a family of auxiliary subunits known as transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). TARPs control the trafficking and gating of AMPARs. However, the number of TARP molecules that assemble within individual AMPAR channels is unknown. Here, we covalently link AMPARs to TARPs to investigate the(More)