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BACKGROUND The phenolic monoterpenoid carvacrol, which is found in many plant essential oils (thyme, oregano and Alaska yellow cedar), is highly active against pest arthropods, but its mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Here, carvacrol is shown to bind in a membrane preparation containing insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). [(14)(More)
The antibiotic sulfamethazine can be transported from manured fields to surface water bodies. We investigated the degradation and fate of sulfamethazine in pond water using (14)C-phenyl-sulfamethazine in small pond water microcosms containing intact sediment and pond water. We found a 2.7-day half-life in pond water and 4.2-day half-life when sulfamethazine(More)
The use of biopesticides and related alternative management products is increasing. New tools, including semiochemicals and plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs), as well as botanical and microbially derived chemicals, are playing an increasing role in pest management, along with plant and animal genetics, biological control, cultural methods, and newer(More)
The southern cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) is a hematophagous external parasite that vectors the causative agents of bovine babesiosis or cattle tick fever, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, and anaplasmosis, Anaplasma marginale. The southern cattle tick is a threat to the livestock industry in many locations throughout the world. Control(More)
Ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs) are primary alcohols commonly used as solvents in numerous household and industrial products. Exposure to EGEs has been correlated with delayed encephalopathy, metabolic acidosis, sub-fertility and spermatotoxicity in humans. In addition, they also cause teratogenesis, carcinogenesis, hemolysis, etc., in various animal models.(More)
Insecticide resistance is a growing threat to mosquito control programs around the world, thus creating the need to discover novel target sites and target-specific compounds for insecticide development. Emerging evidence suggests that mosquito inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels represent viable molecular targets for developing insecticides with new(More)
Widespread pyrethroid resistance has caused an urgent need to develop new insecticides for control of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Insecticide discovery efforts were directed towards the construction of bivalent inhibitors that occupy both the peripheral and catalytic sites of the mosquito acetylcholinesterase (AChE). It was hypothesized that(More)
Potential targets for new vector control insecticides are nerve and muscle potassium channels. In this study, the activities of known potassium channel blockers (4-aminopyridine, quinidine, and tetraethylammonium) and the insecticide propoxur were compared to three experimental catechols and several other compounds against Anopheles gambiae and Aedes(More)
Insecticide resistance in the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, is a serious problem, epitomized by the multi-resistant Akron strain, originally isolated in the country of Benin. Here we report resistance in this strain to pyrethroids and DDT (13-fold to 35-fold compared to the susceptible G3 strain), but surprisingly little resistance to etofenprox, a(More)