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Electrotaxis, directional cell movement in response to an electric potential, has been demonstrated in a wide range of cell types including lymphocytes. Exoelectrogens, microorganisms capable of generating electrical currents, have been identified in microbial fuel cells. However, no studies have investigated exoelectrogenic microbes in fresh feces or the(More)
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes diarrheal disease. Antigenic and structural heterogeneity among ETEC colonization factors has complicated vaccine development efforts. Identifying and characterizing conserved ETEC antigens that induce protective immunity is therefore of interest. We previously characterized three proteins (MipA, Skp, and(More)
Pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) may provide useful models for regenerative medicine, xenotransplantation, and tumor development and will aid in developing therapies for human SCID patients. Using a reporter-guided transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) system, we generated targeted modifications of recombination activating(More)
The commensal gut microbiota has been implicated as a determinant in several human diseases and conditions. There is mounting evidence that the gut microbiota of laboratory mice (Mus musculus) similarly modulates the phenotype of mouse models used to study human disease and development. While differing model phenotypes have been reported using mice(More)
TNF-α antagonists provide benefit to patients with inflammatory autoimmune disorders such as Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. However, TNF antagonism unexplainably exacerbates CNS autoimmunity, including multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. The underlying mechanisms remain enigmatic. We demonstrate that TNFR2(More)
The gastrointestinal tract contains a vast community of microbes that to this day remain largely unculturable, making studies in this area challenging. With the newly affordable advanced sequencing technology, important breakthroughs in this exciting field are now possible. However, standardized methods of sample collection, handling, and DNA extraction(More)
Helicobacter bilis-infected Smad3(-/-) mice represent an attractive model of inflammation-associated colon cancer. Most infected mice develop mucinous adenocarcinoma (MUC) by 6 weeks post inoculation (PI); however, approximately one third do not progress to MUC. The ability to predict the development of MUC in mice used in therapeutic studies would confer a(More)
BACKGROUND Well over a quarter of human breast cancers are ErbB2-driven and constitute a distinct subtype with substantially poorer prognosis. Yet, there are substantial gaps in our understanding of how ErbB2 tyrosine kinase activity unleashes a coordinated program of cellular and extracellular alterations that culminate in aggressive breast cancers.(More)
Recent studies investigating the human microbiome have identified particular bacterial species that correlate with the presence of colorectal cancer. To evaluate the role of qualitatively different but naturally occurring gut microbiota and the relationship with colorectal cancer development, genetically identical embryos from the Polyposis in Rat Colon(More)
Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are commensal bacteria that were first identified in the ilea of mice and rats. Morphologically similar bacteria occur in a broad range of host species, but all strains have been refractory to in vitro culture thus far. Although SFB were once considered innocuous members of the intestinal microbiota of laboratory(More)