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Electrotaxis, directional cell movement in response to an electric potential, has been demonstrated in a wide range of cell types including lymphocytes. Exoelectrogens, microorganisms capable of generating electrical currents, have been identified in microbial fuel cells. However, no studies have investigated exoelectrogenic microbes in fresh feces or the(More)
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes diarrheal disease. Antigenic and structural heterogeneity among ETEC colonization factors has complicated vaccine development efforts. Identifying and characterizing conserved ETEC antigens that induce protective immunity is therefore of interest. We previously characterized three proteins (MipA, Skp, and(More)
Pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) may provide useful models for regenerative medicine, xenotransplantation, and tumor development and will aid in developing therapies for human SCID patients. Using a reporter-guided transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) system, we generated targeted modifications of recombination activating(More)
A method for the cocultivation of nervous system cells with liver cells has been developed. When acrylamide was tested using the cocultivation procedure no significant liver metabolism-mediated changes in the cytotoxicity in C6 culture were detected. In neuroblastoma N1E115 cultures the toxicity was increased by induced chick hepatocytes at high acrylamide(More)
The commensal gut microbiota has been implicated as a determinant in several human diseases and conditions. There is mounting evidence that the gut microbiota of laboratory mice (Mus musculus) similarly modulates the phenotype of mouse models used to study human disease and development. While differing model phenotypes have been reported using mice(More)
Comparative medicine is founded on the concept that other animal species share physiological, behavioral, or other characteristics with humans. Over 2,400 years ago it was recognized that by studying animals, we could learn much about ourselves. This technique has now developed to the point that animal models are employed in virtually all fields of(More)
TNF-α antagonists provide benefit to patients with inflammatory autoimmune disorders such as Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. However, TNF antagonism unexplainably exacerbates CNS autoimmunity, including multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. The underlying mechanisms remain enigmatic. We demonstrate that TNFR2(More)
Helicobacter bilis-infected Smad3(-/-) mice represent an attractive model of inflammation-associated colon cancer. Most infected mice develop mucinous adenocarcinoma (MUC) by 6 weeks post inoculation (PI); however, approximately one third do not progress to MUC. The ability to predict the development of MUC in mice used in therapeutic studies would confer a(More)
The gastrointestinal tract contains a vast community of microbes that to this day remain largely unculturable, making studies in this area challenging. With the newly affordable advanced sequencing technology, important breakthroughs in this exciting field are now possible. However, standardized methods of sample collection, handling, and DNA extraction(More)
BACKGROUND Well over a quarter of human breast cancers are ErbB2-driven and constitute a distinct subtype with substantially poorer prognosis. Yet, there are substantial gaps in our understanding of how ErbB2 tyrosine kinase activity unleashes a coordinated program of cellular and extracellular alterations that culminate in aggressive breast cancers.(More)