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Plant growth and development is regulated by a structurally unrelated collection of small molecules called plant hormones. During the last 15 years the number of known plant hormones has grown from five to at least ten. Furthermore, many of the proteins involved in plant hormone signalling pathways have been identified, including receptors for many of the(More)
The WAG1 and WAG2 genes of Arabidopsis thaliana encode protein-serine/threonine kinases that are closely related to PINOID. In order to determine what roles WAG1 and WAG2 play in seedling development, we used a reverse genetics approach to study the wag1, wag2 and wag1/wag2 mutant phenotypes for clues. Although the wag mutants do not contain detectable(More)
Plants utilize the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to modulate nearly every aspect of growth and development. Ubiquitin is covalently attached to target proteins through the action of three enzymes known as E1, E2, and E3. The ultimate outcome of this post-translational modification depends on the nature of the ubiquitin linkage and the extent of(More)
The plant hormones are a structurally unrelated collection of small molecules derived from various essential metabolic pathways. These compounds are important regulators of plant growth and mediate responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses. During the last ten years there have been many exciting advances in our understanding of plant hormone biology,(More)
The plant hormone auxin is perceived by a family of F box proteins called the TIR1/auxin-signaling F box proteins (AFBs). Phylogenetic studies reveal that these proteins fall into four clades in flowering plants called TIR1, AFB2, AFB4, and AFB6. Genetic studies indicate that members of the TIR1 and AFB2 groups act as positive regulators of auxin signaling.(More)
In animals and fungi, a group of proteins called the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors play a key role in cell cycle regulation. However, comparatively little is known about the role of these proteins in plant cell cycle regulation. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which the plant cell cycle is regulated, we studied the cyclin-dependent kinase(More)
Significant evidence has been accumulated linking exposure to heavy metals and/or distortion of metal homeostasis with the development of various neurodegenerative diseases. α-Synuclein is known to be involved in pathogenesis of a subset of neurodegenerative diseases collectively known as synucleinopathies. Therefore the interplay between metals,(More)
Plant growth depends on the integration of environmental cues and phytohormone-signaling pathways. During seedling emergence, elongation of the embryonic stem (hypocotyl) serves as a readout for light and hormone-dependent responses. We screened 10,000 chemicals provided exogenously to light-grown seedlings and identified 100 compounds that promote(More)
Intrinsically disordered, highly charged protein sequences act as entropic bristles (EBs), which, when translationally fused to partner proteins, serve as effective solubilizers by creating both a large favorable surface area for water interactions and large excluded volumes around the partner. By extending away from the partner and sweeping out large(More)
The oxylipin jasmonic acid (JA) and its metabolites, collectively known as jasmonates, are important plant signaling molecules that mediate biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as aspects of growth and development. Although it is well known that JA regulates transcription, the mechanism of this regulation has been largely unknown. Recently, this(More)