Aaron A. R. Tobian

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BACKGROUND Male circumcision significantly reduced the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among men in three clinical trials. We assessed the efficacy of male circumcision for the prevention of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and syphilis in HIV-negative adolescent boys and men. METHODS(More)
METHODS Uncircumcised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative men aged 15-49 years were randomized to immediate circumcision (intervention arm, 441 subjects) or delayed circumcision (control arm, 399 subjects). Human papillomavirus (HPV) was detected by Roche HPV Linear Array at enrollment, and at 6, 12, and 24 months. Incident high-risk HPV (HR-HPV)(More)
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) male circumcision policy states that while there are potential medical benefits of newborn male circumcision, the data are insufficient to recommend routine neonatal circumcision. Since 2005, however, 3 randomized trials have evaluated male circumcision for prevention of sexually transmitted infections. The trials(More)
Randomized trials have demonstrated that male circumcision (MC) reduces heterosexual acquisition of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, human papillomavirus (HPV), and genital ulcer disease among men, and it reduces HPV, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis among female partners. The pathophysiology behind these effects is(More)
DESCRIPTION Although approximately 85 million units of red blood cells (RBCs) are transfused annually worldwide, transfusion practices vary widely. The AABB (formerly, the American Association of Blood Banks) developed this guideline to provide clinical recommendations about hemoglobin concentration thresholds and other clinical variables that trigger RBC(More)
APCs process heat shock protein (HSP):peptide complexes to present HSP-chaperoned peptides on class I MHC molecules, but the ability of HSPs to contribute chaperoned peptides for class II MHC (MHC-II) Ag processing and presentation is unclear. Our studies revealed that exogenous bacterial HSPs (Escherichia coli DnaK and Mycobacterium tuberculosis HSP70)(More)
UNLABELLED In Rakai, Uganda, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men were randomized to undergo either immediate circumcision (intervention arm) or delayed circumcision (control arm). Penile swab samples were assayed for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) by Roche HPV Linear Array at enrollment and at 24 months (intervention arm, 103 subjects;(More)
Little is known about risk factors for incident herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection among men in Africa. In a trial in Rakai, Uganda, 6396 men aged 15-49 years were evaluated for serological evidence of HSV-2, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and syphilis infections at enrollment and at 6, 12, and 24 months. The prevalence of HSV-2 infection(More)
APCs process mammalian heat shock protein (HSP):peptide complexes to present HSP-chaperoned peptides on class I MHC (MHC-I) molecules to CD8(+) T cells. HSPs are also expressed in prokaryotes and chaperone microbial peptides, but the ability of prokaryotic HSPs to contribute chaperoned peptides for Ag presentation is unknown. Our studies revealed that(More)
Infection of macrophages with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or exposure to M. tuberculosis 19-kDa lipoprotein for >16 h inhibits gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-induced major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) expression by a mechanism involving Toll-like receptors (TLRs). M. tuberculosis was found to inhibit murine macrophage MHC-II antigen (Ag)(More)