Aaron A. R. Tobian

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BACKGROUND Randomised trials show that male circumcision reduces the prevalence and incidence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men. We assessed the efficacy of male circumcision to reduce prevalence and incidence of high-risk HPV in female partners of circumcised men. METHODS In two parallel but independent randomised controlled trials(More)
DESCRIPTION Although approximately 85 million units of red blood cells (RBCs) are transfused annually worldwide, transfusion practices vary widely. The AABB (formerly, the American Association of Blood Banks) developed this guideline to provide clinical recommendations about hemoglobin concentration thresholds and other clinical variables that trigger RBC(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) superinfection has been documented in high-risk individuals; however, the rate of superinfection among HIV-infected individuals within a general population remains unknown. METHODS A novel next-generation ultra-deep sequencing technique was utilized to determine the rate of HIV superinfection in a heterosexual(More)
APCs process heat shock protein (HSP):peptide complexes to present HSP-chaperoned peptides on class I MHC molecules, but the ability of HSPs to contribute chaperoned peptides for class II MHC (MHC-II) Ag processing and presentation is unclear. Our studies revealed that exogenous bacterial HSPs (Escherichia coli DnaK and Mycobacterium tuberculosis HSP70)(More)
UNLABELLED Male circumcision reduces female-to-male HIV transmission. Hypothesized mechanisms for this protective effect include decreased HIV target cell recruitment and activation due to changes in the penis microbiome. We compared the coronal sulcus microbiota of men from a group of uncircumcised controls (n = 77) and from a circumcised intervention(More)
BACKGROUND It is often assumed that local sexual networks play a dominant role in HIV spread in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which continued HIV transmission in rural communities--home to two-thirds of the African population--is driven by intra-community sexual networks versus viral introductions from outside of(More)
BACKGROUND Circumcision is a common procedure, but regional and societal attitudes differ on whether there is a need for a male to be circumcised and, if so, at what age. This is an important issue for many parents, but also pediatricians, other doctors, policy makers, public health authorities, medical bodies, and males themselves. DISCUSSION We show(More)
Exogenous heat shock protein (HSP):peptide complexes are processed for cross-presentation of HSP-chaperoned peptides on class I MHC (MHC-I) molecules. Fusion proteins containing HSP and Ag sequences facilitate MHC-I cross-presentation of linked antigenic epitopes. Processing of HSP-associated Ag has been attributed to dendritic cells and macrophages. We now(More)
BACKGROUND Randomized trials show that male circumcision (MC) reduces the incidence of HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections, and symptomatic genital ulcer disease (GUD). We assessed the role of GUD and HSV-2 in the protection against HIV afforded by MC. METHODS AND FINDINGS HIV-uninfected men were randomized to immediate (n = 2,756) or(More)
BACKGROUND The AABB (formerly, the American Association of Blood Banks) developed this guideline on appropriate use of platelet transfusion in adult patients. METHODS These guidelines are based on a systematic review of randomized, clinical trials and observational studies (1900 to September 2014) that reported clinical outcomes on patients receiving(More)