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METHODS Uncircumcised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative men aged 15-49 years were randomized to immediate circumcision (intervention arm, 441 subjects) or delayed circumcision (control arm, 399 subjects). Human papillomavirus (HPV) was detected by Roche HPV Linear Array at enrollment, and at 6, 12, and 24 months. Incident high-risk HPV (HR-HPV)(More)
Ugandan subjects (820) were tested by Focus HerpeSelect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Kalon herpes simplex virus type 2 ELISA, and BioKit rapid test, and the results were compared to those of Western blotting. Higher-than-standard-index cutoff values gave optimal sensitivity and specificity. Kalon ELISA was the optimal assay when an index value(More)
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) male circumcision policy states that while there are potential medical benefits of newborn male circumcision, the data are insufficient to recommend routine neonatal circumcision. Since 2005, however, 3 randomized trials have evaluated male circumcision for prevention of sexually transmitted infections. The trials(More)
UNLABELLED Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), the principal causative agent of recurrent genital herpes, is a highly prevalent viral infection worldwide. Limited information is available on the amount of genomic DNA variation between HSV-2 strains because only two genomes have been determined, the HG52 laboratory strain and the newly sequenced SD90e(More)
UNLABELLED In Rakai, Uganda, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men were randomized to undergo either immediate circumcision (intervention arm) or delayed circumcision (control arm). Penile swab samples were assayed for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) by Roche HPV Linear Array at enrollment and at 24 months (intervention arm, 103 subjects;(More)
DESCRIPTION Although approximately 85 million units of red blood cells (RBCs) are transfused annually worldwide, transfusion practices vary widely. The AABB (formerly, the American Association of Blood Banks) developed this guideline to provide clinical recommendations about hemoglobin concentration thresholds and other clinical variables that trigger RBC(More)
Importance More than 100 million units of blood are collected worldwide each year, yet the indication for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and the optimal length of RBC storage prior to transfusion are uncertain. Objective To provide recommendations for the target hemoglobin level for RBC transfusion among hospitalized adult patients who are(More)
BACKGROUND Male circumcision significantly reduced the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among men in three clinical trials. We assessed the efficacy of male circumcision for the prevention of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and syphilis in HIV-negative adolescent boys and men. METHODS(More)
APCs process heat shock protein (HSP):peptide complexes to present HSP-chaperoned peptides on class I MHC molecules, but the ability of HSPs to contribute chaperoned peptides for class II MHC (MHC-II) Ag processing and presentation is unclear. Our studies revealed that exogenous bacterial HSPs (Escherichia coli DnaK and Mycobacterium tuberculosis HSP70)(More)
BACKGROUND Randomised trials show that male circumcision reduces the prevalence and incidence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men. We assessed the efficacy of male circumcision to reduce prevalence and incidence of high-risk HPV in female partners of circumcised men. METHODS In two parallel but independent randomised controlled trials(More)