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OBJECTIVE For patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), yearly influenza vaccination is recommended. However, its efficacy in patients treated with rituximab is unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate the efficacy of influenza vaccination in RA patients treated with rituximab and to investigate the duration of the possible suppression of(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus infection remains a serious health problem, not only in infants but also in immunocompromised adults and the elderly. An effective and safe vaccine is not available due to several obstacles: non-replicating RSV vaccines may prime for excess Th2-type responses and enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) upon natural RSV infection of(More)
In the case of an influenza pandemic, the current global influenza vaccine production capacity will be unable to meet the demand for billions of vaccine doses. The ongoing threat of an H5N1 pandemic therefore urges the development of highly immunogenic, dose-sparing vaccine formulations. In unprimed individuals, inactivated whole virus (WIV) vaccines are(More)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a major cause of viral brochiolitis in infants and young children and is also a significant problem in elderly and immuno-compromised adults. To date there is no efficacious and safe RSV vaccine, partially because of the outcome of a clinical trial in the 1960s with a formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine (FI-RSV). This(More)
BACKGROUND Nasal vaccination is considered to be a promising alternative for parenteral vaccination against influenza virus as it is non-invasive and offers the opportunity to elicit strong antigen-specific responses both systemic and locally at the port of entry of the pathogen. Previous studies showed that non-living bacterium-like particles (BLPs) from(More)
BACKGROUND The development of immunological donor-specific hyporeactivity may account for the low incidence of chronic rejection after clinical liver transplantation. We investigated whether hyporeactivity commonly develops after liver transplantation by analyzing precursor frequencies of donor-reactive cytotoxic (CTLp) and helper (HTLp) T lymphocytes and(More)
Administration of influenza vaccines through the intranasal (IN) route forms an attractive alternative to conventional intramuscular (IM) injection. It is not only a better accepted form of vaccine administration but it also has the potential to induce, in addition to systemic antibodies, local protective antibodies, i.e. S-IgA. Most commercially available(More)
This study demonstrates that liposomes administered to the lower respiratory tract of mice have the capacity to stimulate secretory IgA (s-IgA) antibody production in the female urogenital system. Total respiratory tract immunization of mice with influenza virus subunit antigen simply mixed with negatively charged liposomes induced antigen-specific s-IgA in(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe respiratory disease in children and the elderly. There is no registered RSV vaccine. Early experimental non-replicating vaccines have been found to exacerbate RSV symptoms upon infection causing enhanced respiratory disease. Here we show that immunization of mice with reconstituted virosomes produced from RSV(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Survival of microencapsulated islet grafts is limited, even when inflammatory reactions against the capsules are restricted to a small portion of less than 10%. METHODS This study investigates both in vivo in rat recipients and in vitro whether cellular overgrowth on this minority of the capsules contributes to limitations in the(More)