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  • A Ames
  • 2000
Large amounts of energy are required to maintain the signaling activities of CNS cells. Because of the fine-grained heterogeneity of brain and the rapid changes in energy demand, it has been difficult to monitor rates of energy generation and consumption at the cellular level and even more difficult at the subcellular level. Mechanisms to facilitate energy(More)
Methods are described for isolating adult rabbit retinal and maintaining it in a medium designed to resemble CSF. Morphologic, metabolic, nd electrophysiologic measurements obtained on the in vitro retinas showed that they remained in a nearly physiological state for at least 8 h, and even after 2 days in vitro they still exhibited a high level of metabolic(More)
Experiments designed to examine the energy requirements of neurophysiological function were performed on isolated rabbit retina. Function was altered by photic stimulation or by function-specific drugs, and the response of energy metabolism was assessed by simultaneous measurements of O2 consumption and lactate production. In other experiments, the supply(More)
  • A Ames
  • 1992
CNS tissue is well known to have large energy requirements. However, because of the difficulty of measuring rates of energy usage, relatively little is known about which cell types and which neurophysiological functions are the principal energy users. In experiments performed on rabbit retina in vitro, it was possible to measure O2 consumption and lactate(More)
Rabbit retinas were maintained in vitro in medium that resembled CSF but with leucine varied from 2 to 1000 microM. Both leucine and threonine were isotopically labelled. When leucine in the medium was 100-1000 microM, leucine was incorporated into protein at 2.03 +/- 0.04 (S.E.M.) mumol/g dry wt./h, a turnover per h of 0.55% of the leucine in retinal(More)
Rabbit retinas were incubated at 37 C in media lacking oxygen, glucose, or both, or sealed in a small compartment without medium to convert them to a "closed system." They were then returned to control medium before being fixed for microscopy. Other retinas were incubated only in control medium and then fixed. Conversion of the retina to a closed system(More)
1. Rabbit retinas were isolated and superfused with a physiological medium. Ganglion cell activity was recorded during stimulation with focused light, and receptive fields were mapped. Receptive fields were identical to those found in vivo and did not change during a 6-h incubation. After the receptive field of a ganglion cell had been identified,(More)
The metabolism of photoreceptor cGMP and the relationship of its light-sensitive regulation to rhodopsin photoisomerization and to the photoreceptor electrical response was examined in isolated, intact rabbit retinas. The dynamics of cGMP metabolism were assessed by measuring the rate of 18O incorporation from 18O-water into the alpha-phosphoryls of the(More)
  • A Ames, Y Y Li
  • 1992
In vitro rabbit retina was used as an example of CNS tissue in experiments designed to measure the energy requirements associated with the activation of different types of glutamate receptors. Retinas were exposed to glutamate and to four analogs: kainate, 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (APB), 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), and(More)
The b-wave of the isolated rabbit retina was compared with the ganglion cell response to light before and after modification of the retina's incubating medium. Marked diminution of the b-wave, with no reduction in ganglion cell response, was observed under three experimental conditions: (1) following a short period of anoxia; (2) following a short period in(More)