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Erythropoiesis is maintained by the hormone erythropoietin (Epo) binding to its cognate receptor (EpoR) on erythroid progenitor cells. The Epo-EpoR interaction initiates a signal transduction process that regulates the survival, growth and differentiation of these cells. Originally perceived as highly lineage-restricted, Epo is now recognised to have(More)
BACKGROUND Alport syndrome is a hereditary nephritis that may lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in young adult life and is often associated with sensorineural deafness and/or ocular abnormalities. The majority of families are X-linked due to mutations in the COL4A5 gene at Xq22. Autosomal forms of the disease are also recognized with recessive disease,(More)
BACKGROUND Alport syndrome (AS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous renal disorder, predominantly affecting the type IV collagen alpha 3/alpha 4/alpha 5 network of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). AS can be caused by mutations in any of the three genes encoding these type IV collagen chains. The majority of AS families (85%) are X-linked(More)
BACKGROUND Paraoxonase (PON1) gene variants have been identified as risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). There are two common PON1 polymorphisms at position 55 (Leu-Met change) and 192 (Gln-Arg change) of the amino acid chain. Leucine at position 55 and arginine at position 192 have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The increased(More)
AIMS To investigate the association between polymorphisms of the aldose reductase gene and diabetic nephropathy in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to carry out a meta-analysis of published results. METHODS We have investigated the role of two aldose reductase polymorphisms in four independent cohorts of cases and controls (two each with Type(More)
Recent evidence suggests that HDL can directly inhibit LDL oxidation, a key early stage in atherogenesis. Patients with chronic renal failure are at increased cardiovascular risk, have reduced HDL levels and altered HDL composition. We have therefore investigated whether compositional changes in HDL lead to decreased HDL antioxidant capacity in these(More)
BACKGROUND Small studies have linked α1 antitrypsin (α1AT) deficiency to patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). OBJECTIVE To test the validity and the mechanism of this association between α1AT and AAV. METHODS The distribution of α1AT deficiency alleles Z and S was compared between 856 White Europeans(More)
High-resolution polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSOP) typing methods for HLA-A identification have been established. The four systems, which operate independently of each other, are intended for use as secondary typing systems following HLA-A identification with a medium-resolution PCR-SSOP technique. The(More)
The erythropoietin gene has been cloned in three mammalian species including man and recombinant erythropoietin is now used to treat the anaemia of chronic renal failure. Despite the isolation of the gene the precise cellular location of erythropoietin synthesis remains controversial. We present studies which demonstrate erythropoietin production by kidney(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to outline the possible implications and potentially valuable techniques for managing cases in which the neural integrity of the peripheral auditory system is in question. STUDY DESIGN This study was a retrospective case review. SUBJECT AND METHOD A 3-year-old child with a profound blilateral sensorineural(More)