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The second messengers cAMP and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate have been implicated in olfaction in various species. The odorant-induced cGMP response was investigated using cilia preparations and olfactory primary cultures. Odorants cause a delayed and sustained elevation of cGMP. A component of this cGMP response is attributable to the activation of one of(More)
Two guanylate-cyclase-activating proteins (GCAP) encoded by a tail-to-tail gene array have been characterized in the mammalian retina. Using frog retina as a model, we obtained evidence for the presence of a photoreceptor Ca2+-binding protein closely related to GCAP. This protein (206 amino acids) does not stimulate guanylate cyclase (GC) in low [Ca2+], but(More)
In rod and cone photoreceptor cells, activation of particulate guanylate cyclase (retGC1) is mediated by a Ca2+-binding protein termed GCAP1, that detects changes in [Ca2+]free. In this study, we show that N-acylated GCAP1 restored Ca2+ sensitivity of native and recombinant photoreceptor retGC1. ATP increased the affinity of retGC1 for GCAP1 and accelerated(More)
Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAP1 and GCAP2) are thought to mediate the intracellular stimulation of guanylate cyclase (GC) by Ca2+, a key event in recovery of the dark state of rod photoreceptors after exposure to light. GCAP1 has been localized to rod and cone outer segments, the sites of phototransduction, and to photoreceptor synaptic(More)
Guanylyl cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs are 23-kDa Ca2+-binding proteins belonging to the calmodulin superfamily. Ca2+-free GCAPs are responsible for activation of photoreceptor guanylyl cyclase during light adaptation. In this study, we characterized GCAP1 mutants in which three endogenous nonessential Trp residues were replaced by Phe residues,(More)
In the retinal cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase (PDE), catalysis by the alpha beta-heterodimer is inhibited in the dark by two identical gamma-subunits and stimulated in the light by the GTP-bearing alpha-subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein transducin (T beta gamma-T alpha GDP). Two T alpha GTP molecules, dissociated from T beta gamma, bind to and displace(More)
We seek to define the influence of retinal cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) on the GTPase activity of transducin (T). A novel stopped-flow/fast filtration apparatus [Antonny, B., et al. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 8646-8653] is used to deliver T alpha GTP free of rod outer segment (ROS) membranes to a suspension of phospholipid vesicles bearing holoPDE. As measured(More)
Small G proteins of the Rho/Rac/Cdc42 family are associated with lipid membranes through their prenylated C termini. Alternatively, these proteins form soluble complexes with GDI proteins. To assess how this membrane partitioning influences the activation of Rac by guanine nucleotide exchange factors, GDP-to-GTP exchange reactions were performed in the(More)
Light triggers the phototransduction cascade by activating the visual pigment rhodopsin (Rho --> Rho*). Phosphorylation of Rho* by rhodopsin kinase (RK) is necessary for the fast recovery of sensitivity after intense illumination. Ca2+ ions, acting through Ca2+-binding proteins, have been implicated in the desensitization of phototransduction. One such(More)
The single-turn GTP hydrolysis by isolated and soluble transducin has been time-resolved using a rapid flow filtration technique which takes advantage of the GTP-requiring detachment of transducin alpha-subunits (T alpha) from photoactivated rhodopsin (R*). Illuminated rod outer segment (ROS) fragments to which holo-transducin is tightly bound are retained(More)