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In response to most stressors, fish will elicit a generalized physiological stress response, which involves the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI). As in other vertebrates, this generalized stress response comprises physiological responses that are common to a wide range of environmental, physical and biological stressors.(More)
Population response to global change will depend on responses to a multivariate set of changes in abiotic habitat characteristics and biotic interactions. Organismal biologists seeking to make ecological inferences about the impacts of global change by studying physiological performance have traditionally performed carefully controlled experimental studies(More)
have generated extensive fundamental knowledge that now has us superbly positioned for " returning to the organism " (Stillman et al. 2011). The challenge is to extend, integrate, and exploit the insights from " outward " and " inward " gene-oriented biology to develop a deeper understanding of individual organisms' higher-order emergent characteristics,(More)
Despite decades of intensive investigation, important questions remain regarding the functional, ecological, and evolutionary roles of heat shock proteins. In this paper, we discuss the utility of fish as a model system to address these questions, and review the relevant studies of heat shock protein genes and the regulation of their expression in fish.(More)
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