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The apical ectodermal ridge plays a key role in limb development. We show that recombinant FGF-4 can substitute for the ridge to provide all the signals necessary for virtually complete outgrowth and patterning of the chick limb. FGF-4 stimulates proliferation of cells in the distal mesenchyme and maintains a signal from the posterior to the distal(More)
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are central to signaling in the developing limb. FGF-2 and FGF-4 can substitute for the apical ectodermal ridge to maintain both limb bud outgrowth and polarizing region signaling. Here, we have repeated and extended previous studies and investigated local effects of the apical ectodermal ridge on gene expression of Msx-1,(More)
Monoclonal antibodies were generated against the intermediate filament proteins of different human cells. The reactivity of these antibodies with the different classes of intermediate filament proteins was determined by indirect immunofluorescence on cultured cells, immunologic indentification on SDS polyacrylamide gels ("wester blot" experiments), and(More)
The effects of platelet-derived growth factor and plasma components on saturation density in cultures of 3T3 cells were investigated. Both of these components of whole blood serum affect saturation density; however, when 3T3 cells become quiescent at high density in medium containing whole blood serum, only platelet-derived growth factor and fresh whole(More)
Tumor-host interaction is determined by constant immune surveillance, characterized by tumor infiltration of myeloid and lymphoid cells. A malfunctioning or diverted immune response promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Recent advances had been made, by treating of certain tumor types, such as melanoma, with T-cell checkpoint inhibitors. This highlights the(More)
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