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Background Regulatory T cells (Treg) are abundant in the inflamed joints of children with JIA. However the high number of Treg is not able to control the inflammation within the joint, suggesting a shortcoming of their regulatory function. It has been suggested that Treg can develop a proinflammatory profile that is specifically related to the local(More)
Introduction Since 2003, the established paradigm of T cell immunology has defined interleukin (IL)-17 as a dominant Th17 cell derived cytokine driving autoimmune disease. Recent murine studies have challenged this, identifying GM-CSF as a Th17 related cytokine necessary and sufficient for the induction of autoimmunity. The origin of GM-CSF+ T cells and(More)
Introduction Predicting disease course in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is difficult. During the first 6 months of oligoarticular JIA (O-JIA) disease presents with 4 or fewer affected joints, however after 6 or more months severity might increase with more than 4 joints involved (extended OJIA), or persist with 4 or fewer joints affected (persistent(More)
Introduction Predicting disease course in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is difficult. During the first 6 months of oligoarticular JIA (O-JIA) disease presents with 4 or fewer affected joints, however after 6 or more months severity might increase with more than 4 joints involved (extended O-JIA), or persist with 4 or fewer joints affected (persistent(More)
Introduction T regulatory cells (Treg), vital to prevent autoimmunity, are defined by expression of FoxP3 in combination with high CD25 and low CD127 expression. It has been reported, however, that upon in vitro activation, conventional T cells (Tconv) can manifest phenotypic marks associated with Treg and, as such, expression of these markers alone is(More)
Introduction Regulatory T cells (Treg) are crucial for maintaining immune homeostasis and mediating immune tolerance. Besides their immune regulatory function, Treg can produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-17 and interferon (IFN)-g. Recently, our group has identified CD161 as a marker for pro-inflammatory FoxP3+ T cells which have(More)
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