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AIM To determine whether early lead exposure at levels below 10 microg/dl has an impact on educational and behavioural outcomes at school. METHODS Venous samples were taken from a subgroup of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) attending a research clinic at 30 months of age (n = 582), and lead levels were measured by atomic(More)
AIMS To define the normal ranges and investigate associated factors for haemoglobin and ferritin in British children at 12 and 18 months of age, and to estimate correlations between both haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations at 8, 12, and 18 months of age. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Subjects were part of the "children in focus" sample, randomly selected from(More)
For heavy metals that have any degree of transfer though the placenta to the fetus, it is unlikely that there are safe limits for maternal blood levels. The only means of reducing fetal exposure is to minimise maternal exposure. There are few recommendations for levels of concern. With the exception of US recommendations for maternal Pb levels, but there(More)
OBJECTIVE Postpartum depression in mothers is associated with developmental problems in their children. Many women who are depressed following childbirth are also depressed during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and child development at 18 months of age. DESIGN A(More)
AIM To identify the optimum age to screen for iron deficiency, the normal distribution of haemoglobin and ferritin in a representative population sample was investigated. METHODS Normal values for haemoglobin and ferritin were measured from heel prick capillary samples obtained from a representative cohort of 1175 infants at 8 months old who were randomly(More)
AIM To investigate whether children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have bowel symptoms consistent with underlying enterocolitis. METHODS Information on children's stool patterns and gut symptoms collected by questionnaire at 4 weeks and at 6, 18, 30 and 42 months of age were available for 12,984 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents(More)
AIMS To investigate the relation between haemoglobin in children followed longitudinally from 8 to 18 months, and developmental outcome at 18 months. METHODS The Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC) is a longitudinal survey of a geographically defined population of children born in 1991-92. In a randomly selected subsample, blood(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the associations of prenatal blood lead levels (B-Pb) with pregnancy outcomes in a large cohort of mother-child pairs in the UK. DESIGN Prospective birth cohort study. SETTING Avon area of Bristol, UK. POPULATION Pregnant women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). METHODS Whole blood samples(More)
The prevalence of cerebral palsy in the 1958 British Perinatal Mortality Survey and the 1970 British Births Survey remained constant at 2.5/1000 births (40 and 41 cases, respectively). The prevalence at 10 years was higher in the 1970 cohort in which all children with cerebral palsy survived, whereas 22% of the cases in the 1958 cohort died during the first(More)
OBJECTIVE To document the normal stool patterns of young children. DESIGN Prospective population-based longitudinal study. SETTING Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). SUBJECTS 12,984 children, whose parents completed questionnaires at 4 weeks, 6, 18, 30 and 42 months on their frequency of bowel movements and the consistency and(More)