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AIM The aim was to assess the impact of nutritional status and environmental exposures on infant thymic development in the rural Matlab region of Bangladesh. METHODS In a cohort of N(max) 2094 infants born during a randomized study of combined interventions to improve maternal and infant health, thymic volume (thymic index, TI) was assessed by(More)
This article challenges Speakman's hypothesis that the modern genetic predisposition to obesity has arisen through random genetic drift in the two million years following predation release. We present evidence in support of the hypothesis that a mixture of famines and seasonal food shortages in the post-agricultural era have exerted natural selection in(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the relationship between fasting serum leptin levels and body mass index (BMI) in children from different ethnic groups. SUBJECTS Children aged 6-10 y from rural Gambia (n=471) and central Italy (n=839). MEASUREMENTS Anthropometry (z-score of BMI) and fasting serum leptin concentrations. RESULTS The Italian children had(More)
OBJECTIVE Emerging evidence from animal models suggests that translocation of bacterial debris across a leaky gut may trigger low-grade inflammation, which in turn drives insulin resistance. The current study set out to investigate this phenomenon, termed 'metabolic endotoxemia', in Gambian women. METHODS In a cross-sectional study, we recruited 93(More)
OBJECTIVE To validate the Tanita BC-418MA Segmental Body Composition Analyser and four-site skinfold measurements for the prediction of total body water (TBW), percentage fat-free mass (%FFM) and percentage body fat (%BF) in a population of rural Gambian children. SUBJECTS/METHODS One hundred and thirty-three healthy Gambian children (65 males and 68(More)
Prenatal events can affect neonatal thymus size and adult immune function. The causal insults are unknown, although fetal nutrient restriction is suspected. We used ultrasound at three time points during pregnancy (14, 19 and 30 weeks) to measure the growth of six fetal dimensions in rural Bangladeshi women participating in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition(More)
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