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A study was conducted to determine the conditions needed to achieve the equilibrium concentration for the epimerization of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) to iso-LSD. The reaction was followed by integration of the C-9 resonance of LSD and iso-LSD by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The C-9 resonance of LSD and iso-LSD appear as singlets at 6.35(More)
A controlled study was undertaken to determine the stability of LSD in pooled urine samples. The concentrations of LSD in urine samples were followed over time at various temperatures, in different types of storage containers, at various exposures to different wavelengths of light, and at varying pH values. LSD concentrations were measured quantitatively by(More)
A homogenous microparticle-based immunoassay has been developed for the detection of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in human urine using the Online technology. This immunoassay is based on the principle of the kinetic interaction of microparticles in a solution where the drug content of the urine is directly proportional to the inhibition of the(More)
The synthesis of [S-(R,S)]-4-[[methyl[2-methyl-3-(1-oxopropoxy)-3, 4-diphenylbutyl]amino]-1-oxobutoxy]-2,5-pyrrolidinedione+ ++ (propoxyphene active ester, 2) is described. This was used as an intermediate to prepare a propoxyphene immunogen, [S-(R,S)]-4-[methyl][2-methyl-3-(1-oxopropoxy)-3,4-diphenylbuty l]-amino]- 1-oxobutyl-Bovine Thyroglobulin (3). This(More)
The catalytic rates of hydrolysis of lorazepam-glucuronide, oxazepam-glucuronide, and temazepam-glucuronide when catalyzed by E. Coli. beta-glucuronidase both in phosphate buffer and buffered drug-free urine were compared as well as the pH dependence of enzyme activity. In 50 mM phosphate buffer pH 6.4, lorazepam-glucuronide has the highest turnover rate of(More)
The abuse of the designer amphetamines such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) is increasing throughout the world. They have become popular drugs, especially at all-night techno dance parties (Raves), and their detection is becoming an important issue. Presently, there are no MDMA- or MDA-specific immunoassays on the market, and detection(More)
A clinical study was conducted to assess the ability of commercially available immunoassays to detect flunitrazepam (FNP) in plasma and urine samples and to compare the results with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The clinical study consisted of four individuals (two male and two female) who had taken a single 2-mg dose of(More)
A study was conducted to compare the clinical sensitivity of the OnLine and EMIT II assays for propoxyphene (PPX) use in human urine. A total of 5138 random clinical samples were evaluated by both OnLine and EMIT II. Samples that were positive for each immunoassay were confirmed for PPX and norpropoxyphene (NPPX) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(More)
A study was conducted to compare the performance of the OnLine and OnTrak immunoassays for benzodiazepines with gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis in detecting flunitrazepam (FNP) and its metabolites in human urine. Urine was collected over a 72-h period from six individuals (four male and two female) who had taken a single oral dose of(More)
This paper presents an automated classification of buildings in Coleraine, Northern Ireland. The classification was generated using very high spatial resolution data (10 cm) from a Digital Mapping Camera (DMC) for March 2009. The visible to near infrared (VNIR) bands of the DMC enabled a supervised classification to be performed to extract buildings from(More)