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In 1996, Congress passed legislation requiring the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to implement screening/testing strategies for endocrine-active compounds (EACs). In response, EPA convened the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee (EDSTAC) to advise the agency on a strategy to screen and test xenobiotics for endocrine(More)
A set of biologically-based toxicity testing decision triggers was developed and analyzed within a tiered testing and decision-making framework for evaluating potential human health hazards and risks associated with chemical exposures. The proposed three-tiered toxicity testing approach starts from a base set of toxicity studies (acute toxicity, in vitro(More)
In a study of bacteriuria in elderly (mean age 85 years, range 69 to 101), mostly middle- and upper-class Jewish subjects, attempts were made to determine if bacteriuria without dysuria is otherwise asymptomatic. Seventy-two subjects (59 women and 13 men) without dysuria were questioned about other urinary symptoms (incontinence, frequency, urgency,(More)
This paper presents an enhanced integrated testing framework based on tiered testing and endpoint-specific decision triggers envisioned for application to commodity chemical safety assessments. The framework has two tiers in which exposure information can be integrated with hazard data at each Tier. Tier 1 tests are used to screen chemicals for major toxic(More)
Development, standardization, and validation of methods to assess the potential of chemicals to disrupt hormonal homeostasis have been the focus of considerable research efforts over the past 10 years. As part of our validation effort, we evaluated the specificity of the 15-day intact adult male rat assay, using a negative control chemical, allyl alcohol, a(More)
Bacterial meningitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Arizona infants and children. A retrospective review of 102 cases of meningitis occurring in the American Indian population documents the prevalence of the Haemophilus influenzae organism with a peak incidence in the first year of life. The rate of H influenzae resistance to ampicillin was(More)
St. Louis encephalitis is not an uncommon cause of seasonal meningoencephalitis in children. The clinical presentation is variable and may range from inapparent infection to a severe illness with diverse neurologic signs. A review of three recent cases of St. Louis encephalitis in children in Phoenix, Arizona, stresses the need to consider this type of(More)
Continuous ultraviolet light (u.v.) and chemical disinfection of circulating water systems were evaluated Direct comparisons of the biocidal effectiveness of u.v. light vs halogenation were tested with Legionella spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa because of their association with the acquisition of overt clinical disease from water-containing appliances.(More)