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Combinations of muscle synergies in the construction of a natural motor behavior
It is shown that combinations of three time-varying muscle synergies underlie the variety of muscle patterns required to kick in different directions, that the recruitment of these synergies is related to movement kinematics, and that there are similarities among the synergies extracted from different behaviors. Expand
Shared and specific muscle synergies in natural motor behaviors.
  • A. d’Avella, E. Bizzi
  • Medicine, Computer Science
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
  • 22 February 2005
The hypothesis that the motor controller has a modular architecture to achieve motor coordination is supported by the results of characterized the motor output over a large set of movements. Expand
Matrix factorization algorithms for the identification of muscle synergies: evaluation on simulated and experimental data sets.
The ability of several algorithms to identify the correct muscle synergies and activation coefficients in simulated data, combined with their consistency when applied to physiological data sets, suggests that the Muscle synergies found by a particular algorithm are not an artifact of that algorithm, but reflect basic aspects of the organization of muscle activation patterns underlying behaviors. Expand
Central and Sensory Contributions to the Activation and Organization of Muscle Synergies during Natural Motor Behaviors
It is speculated that sensory feedback might adapt recruitment of muscle synergies to behavioral constraints, and the few synergies specific to the intact or deafferented states might represent afferent-specific modules or feedback reorganization of spinal neuronal networks. Expand
Control of Fast-Reaching Movements by Muscle Synergy Combinations
The complex spatiotemporal characteristics of the muscles patterns for reaching were captured by the combinations of a small number of components, suggesting that the mechanisms involved in the generation of the muscle patterns exploit this low dimensionality to simplify control. Expand
Locomotor Primitives in Newborn Babies and Their Development
It is found that the two basic patterns of stepping neonates are retained through development, augmented by two new patterns first revealed in toddlers, consistent with the hypothesis that locomotion in several animal species is built starting from common primitives, perhaps related to a common ancestral neural network. Expand
Combining modules for movement
Evidence is provided for a modular organization of the spinal cord that generates a specific motor output by imposing a specific pattern of muscle activation in intact and deafferented animals. Expand
On the origin of planar covariation of elevation angles during human locomotion.
It is shown that the planar law of intersegmental coordination is not a simple consequence of biomechanics, and recent advances in the neural control of movement support the hypothesis about central representation of kinematics components. Expand
Modulation of phasic and tonic muscle synergies with reaching direction and speed.
It is found that the amplitude modulation of three time-invariant synergies captured the variations in the postural muscle patterns at the end of the movement, suggesting that muscle synergies are basic control modules that allow generating the appropriate muscle patterns through simple modulation and combination rules. Expand
Adjustments of motor pattern for load compensation via modulated activations of muscle synergies during natural behaviors.
Investigating whether motor responses observed after an inertial-load perturbation can be generated by altering the recruitment of synergies normally used for constructing unperturbed movements suggests that muscle synergies are robust across different dynamic conditions and immediate motor adjustments can be accomplished by modulating synergy activations. Expand