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Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar disks
TLDR
It is reported that boulders can undergo efficient gravitational collapse in locally overdense regions in the midplane of the disk, and it is found that gravitationally bound clusters form with masses comparable to dwarf planets and containing a distribution of boulder sizes.
STREAMING INSTABILITIES IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS
Interpenetrating streams of solids and gas in a Keplerian disk produce a local, linear instability. The two components mutually interact via aerodynamic drag, which generates radial drift and
The Exoplanet Census: A General Method Applied to Kepler
We develop a general method to fit the planetary distribution function (PLDF) to exoplanet survey data. This maximum likelihood method accommodates more than one planet per star and any number of
PLANETESIMAL FORMATION BY GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY
We investigate the formation of planetesimals via the gravitational instability of solids that have settled to the midplane of a circumstellar disk. Vertical shear between the gas and a subdisk of
Forming Planetesimals in Solar and Extrasolar Nebulae
Planets are built from planetesimals: solids larger than a kilometer that grow by colliding in pairs. Planetesimals themselves are unlikely to form by twobody collisions alone; subkilometer objects
Particle Clumping and Planetesimal Formation Depend Strongly on Metallicity
We present three-dimensional numerical simulations of particle clumping and planetesimal formation in protoplanetary disks with varying amounts of solid material. As centimeter-size pebbles settle to
Zonal Flows and Long-lived Axisymmetric Pressure Bumps in Magnetorotational Turbulence
We study the behavior of magnetorotational turbulence in shearing box simulations with a radial and azimuthal extent up to 10 scale heights. Maxwell and Reynolds stresses are found to increase by
Protoplanetary Disk Turbulence Driven by the Streaming Instability: Linear Evolution and Numerical Methods
We present local simulations that verify the linear streaming instability that arises from aerodynamic coupling between solids and gas in protoplanetary disks. This robust instability creates
ON THE MINIMUM CORE MASS FOR GIANT PLANET FORMATION AT WIDE SEPARATIONS
In the core accretion hypothesis, giant planets form by gas accretion onto solid protoplanetary cores. The minimum (or critical) core mass to form a gas giant is typically quoted as 10 M ⊕. The
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