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Evolution and classification of the CRISPR–Cas systems
The CRISPR–Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats–CRISPR-associated proteins) modules are adaptive immunity systems that are present in many archaea and bacteria. TheseExpand
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An updated evolutionary classification of CRISPR–Cas systems
The evolution of CRISPR–cas loci, which encode adaptive immune systems in archaea and bacteria, involves rapid changes, in particular numerous rearrangements of the locus architecture and horizontalExpand
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A dual function of the CRISPR–Cas system in bacterial antivirus immunity and DNA repair
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) and the associated proteins (Cas) comprise a system of adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids in prokaryotes. Cas1 is aExpand
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Nuclease Activity of the Human SAMHD1 Protein Implicated in the Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome and HIV-1 Restriction*
Background: The human SAMHD1 protein has dNTP triphosphatase activity and is involved in HIV-1 restriction and autoimmune syndrome. Results: Purified SAMHD1 exhibits nuclease activity againstExpand
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A Novel Family of Sequence-specific Endoribonucleases Associated with the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats*
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) together with the associated CAS proteins protect microbial cells from invasion by foreign genetic elements using presently unknownExpand
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Structural insight into the mechanism of c-di-GMP hydrolysis by EAL domain phosphodiesterases.
Cyclic diguanylate (or bis-(3'-5') cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate; c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger that regulates diverse cellular functions, including motility, biofilm formation,Expand
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Genome-wide Analysis of Substrate Specificities of the Escherichia coli Haloacid Dehalogenase-like Phosphatase Family*
Haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like hydrolases are a vast superfamily of largely uncharacterized enzymes, with a few members shown to possess phosphatase, β-phosphoglucomutase, phosphonatase, andExpand
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Evolutionary classification of CRISPR–Cas systems: a burst of class 2 and derived variants
The number and diversity of known CRISPR–Cas systems have substantially increased in recent years. Here, we provide an updated evolutionary classification of CRISPR–Cas systems and cas genes, with anExpand
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Enzyme genomics: Application of general enzymatic screens to discover new enzymes.
In all sequenced genomes, a large fraction of predicted genes encodes proteins of unknown biochemical function and up to 15% of the genes with "known" function are mis-annotated. Several globalExpand
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Polyphosphate-dependent synthesis of ATP and ADP by the family-2 polyphosphate kinases in bacteria
Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a linear polymer of tens or hundreds of phosphate residues linked by high-energy bonds. It is found in all organisms and has been proposed to serve as an energyExpand
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