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Dynamics of drug dependence. Implications of a conditioning theory for research and treatment.
- A. Wikler
- Psychology, BiologyArchives of general psychiatry
- 1 May 1973
To prevent relapse, both conditioned CCCs (conditioned abstinence, CA) and conditioned SAPD should be actively extinguished after DTX by elicitation of CA and programmed SAPD under conditions preventing pharmacological reinforcement.
Recent progress in research on the neurophysiologic basis of morphine addiction.
- A. Wikler
- MedicineThe American journal of psychiatry
- 1 November 1948
An experimental study of the etiology of rum fits and delirium tremens.
Classical conditioning of a morphine abstinence phenomenon, reinforcement of opioid-drinking behavior and “relapse” in morphine-addicted rats
The pre-potent factor in disposing to relapse, at least in the rat under the experimental conditions described, is the long-term persistence of unconditioned disturbances in homeostasis following with-drawal of morphine which can provide a source of reinforcement for operant conditioning of opioid-seeking behavior during “relapse-testing” sessions even without benefit of previous “training”.
Cross tolerance between LSD and psilocybin
The development of “cross” tolerance between LSD and psilocybin reinforces the idea that these two drugs cause psychic disturbances by acting on some common mechanism, or on mechanisms acting through a common final pathway.
The first drink: psychobiological aspects of craving.
It appeared that a sufficient amount of alcohol, administered in the context of explicit drinking cues, could act much like hors d'oeuvres and thereby contribute to the "first drink" relapse phenomenon.
"Craving" and relapse to drink.
It is hypothesized that the phenomenon of "craving" for alcohol represents a psychological or cognitive correlate of a subclinical conditioned withdrawal syndrome which may be evoked by any state o...
Studies on lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25). I. Effects in former morphine addicts and development of tolerance during chronic intoxication.
- R. E. Belleville, H. F. Fraser, H. Isbell, C. R. Logan, A. Wikler
- Psychology, MedicineA.M.A. archives of neurology and psychiatry
- 1 November 1956
The striking mental changes induced by the diethylamide of lysergic acid (hereafter referred to as LSD) have been studied extensively in Europe, Great Britain and the United States and are apparently the most effective and safest agent for inducing an experimental, but reversible, psychosis in nonpsychotic subjects.
Tolerance to and physical dependence on morphine in rats
The secondary abstinence syndrome of rats addicted to large doses of morphine is protracted and small differences have been seen between addicted and control animals as long as four to six months after withdrawal of morphine.