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The clinicopathologic spectrum of focal cortical dysplasias: A consensus classification proposed by an ad hoc Task Force of the ILAE Diagnostic Methods Commission 1
Purpose:  Focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) are localized regions of malformed cerebral cortex and are very frequently associated with epilepsy in both children and adults. A broad spectrum ofExpand
The role of inflammation in epilepsy
TLDR
This work focuses on the rapidly growing body of evidence that supports the involvement of inflammatory mediators—released by brain cells and peripheral immune cells—in both the origin of individual seizures and the epileptogenic process. Expand
Sox2 deficiency causes neurodegeneration and impaired neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain
TLDR
A crucial and unexpected role for Sox2 in the maintenance of neurones in selected brain areas is highlighted, and a contribution of neural cell proliferative defects to the pathological phenotype is suggested. Expand
Toll-like receptor 4 and high-mobility group box-1 are involved in ictogenesis and can be targeted to reduce seizures
TLDR
HMGB1-TLR4 signaling may contribute to generating and perpetuating seizures in humans and might be targeted to attain anticonvulsant effects in epilepsies that are currently resistant to drugs. Expand
Brain Inflammation in Epilepsy: Experimental and Clinical Evidence
TLDR
The possibility that inflammation may be a common factor contributing, or predisposing, to the occurrence of seizures and cell death, in various forms of epilepsy of different etiologies is discussed. Expand
Interleukin-1β Enhances NMDA Receptor-Mediated Intracellular Calcium Increase through Activation of the Src Family of Kinases
TLDR
The data suggest that IL-1β increases NMDA receptor function through activation of tyrosine kinases and subsequent NR2A/B subunit phosphorylation, which may contribute to glutamate-mediated neurodegeneration. Expand
Innate and adaptive immunity during epileptogenesis and spontaneous seizures: Evidence from experimental models and human temporal lobe epilepsy
TLDR
Data show that specific inflammatory pathways are chronically activated during epileptogenesis and they persist in chronic epileptic tissue, suggesting they may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of TLE. Expand
Interleukin-1β Immunoreactivity and Microglia Are Enhanced in the Rat Hippocampus by Focal Kainate Application: Functional Evidence for Enhancement of Electrographic Seizures
TLDR
Exogenous application of IL-1β prolongs kainate-induced hippocampal EEG seizures by enhancing glutamatergic neurotransmission and thus, convulsant and/or excitotoxic stimuli increase the production of interleukin (IL)-1β in microglia-like cells in the hippocampus. Expand
Neuropeptide Y: emerging evidence for a functional role in seizure modulation
TLDR
Recent studies that have shown the changes induced by seizures in the level and distribution of NPY, its receptor subtypes and their respective mRNAs in rat forebrain suggest that NPY-mediated neurotransmission is altered by seizures. Expand
Powerful anticonvulsant action of IL-1 receptor antagonist on intracerebral injection and astrocytic overexpression in mice.
IL-1beta and its endogenous receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) are rapidly induced by seizures in the rodent hippocampus. Exogenously applied IL-1beta prolongs seizures in an IL-1R type I-mediated manner.Expand
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