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Impulsivity as a vulnerability marker for substance-use disorders: Review of findings from high-risk research, problem gamblers and genetic association studies
TLDR
The evidence that impulsivity is associated with addiction vulnerability is reviewed by considering three lines of evidence: studies of groups at high-risk for development of SUDs; studies of pathological gamblers, where the harmful consequences of the addiction on brain structure are minimised, and genetic association studies linking impulsivity to genetic risk factors for addiction. Expand
Cognitive impulsivity in cocaine and heroin polysubstance abusers.
TLDR
Assuming the relevance of polysubstance involvement, cocaine abuse seems to differentially correlate with motor impulsivity skills, while both substances seem to be equally linked to the inability to decide advantageously in complex decision-making tasks. Expand
What are the specific vs. generalized effects of drugs of abuse on neuropsychological performance?
TLDR
Evidence from human studies in chronic substance abusers is reviewed using three methodologies and Converging evidence indicates that all the drugs studied are commonly associated with significant alterations in the neuropsychological domains of episodic memory, emotional processing, and the executive components of updating and decision-making. Expand
A somatic marker theory of addiction
TLDR
It is concluded that there are at least two underlying types of dysfunction where emotional signals (somatic markers) turn in favor of immediate outcomes in addiction: a hyperactivity in the amygdala or impulsive system, which exaggerates the rewarding impact of available incentives, and hypo activity in the prefrontal cortex or reflective system,Which forecasts the long-term consequences of a given action. Expand
Negative emotion-driven impulsivity predicts substance dependence problems.
TLDR
Among the different impulsivity dimensions, urgency was the best predictor of severity of medical, employment, alcohol, drug, family/social, legal and psychiatric problems in ISD, explaining 13-48% of the total variance of these indices. Expand
The differential relationship between cocaine use and marijuana use on decision-making performance over repeat testing with the Iowa Gambling Task.
TLDR
Results showed that both cocaine users and MJ users performed worse than controls on the total IGT net score, and differential correlates of cocaine use and MJ use on decision-making learning may have important implications for the development of novel treatment interventions. Expand
Executive function and decision-making in women with fibromyalgia.
TLDR
Examination of possible impairment of executive function and decision-making in a sample of women diagnosed with fibromyalgia and healthy women matched in age, education, and socio-economic status showed that on the WCST, FM women showed poorer performance than healthy comparison women on the number of categories and non-perseverative errors, but not on perseverative errors. Expand
Profile of executive deficits in cocaine and heroin polysubstance users: common and differential effects on separate executive components
TLDR
Findings show both common and differential effects of two widely used drugs on different executive components, with cocaine use inducing more severe deficits on inhibition and shifting. Expand
Impulsivity and cognitive distortions in pathological gamblers attending the UK National Problem Gambling Clinic: a preliminary report
TLDR
Impulsive choice in the gamblers was correlated with the level of gambling distortions, and it is hypothesized that an impulsive decision-making style may increase the acceptance of erroneous beliefs during gambling play. Expand
Executive dysfunction in substance dependent individuals during drug use and abstinence: An examination of the behavioral, cognitive and emotional correlates of addiction
TLDR
SDI showed greater behavioral problems in the apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction subscales of the FrSBe, and showed poorer performance on cognitive tests of working memory, response inhibition and mental flexibility, and abnormal processing of affective images from the IAPS. Expand
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