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Prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in women: effects of gender.
TLDR
The data combined indicate that menopause is a significant risk factor for sleep apnea in women and that hormone replacement appears to be associated with reduced risk.
Sleep disordered breathing in children in a general population sample: prevalence and risk factors.
TLDR
The strong linear relationship between waist circumference and BMI across all degrees of severity of SDB suggests that, as in adults, metabolic factors may be among the most important risk factors for SDB in children.
Excessive daytime sleepiness in a general population sample: the role of sleep apnea, age, obesity, diabetes, and depression.
TLDR
It appears that the presence of EDS is more strongly associated with depression and metabolic factors than with sleep-disordered breathing or sleep disruption per se, and patients with a complaint of E DS should be thoroughly assessed for depression and obesity/diabetes independent of whether sleep- disordered breathing is present.
Chronic insomnia is associated with nyctohemeral activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: clinical implications.
TLDR
It is concluded that insomnia is associated with an overall increase of ACTH and cortisol secretion, which, however, retains a normal circadian pattern, consistent with a disorder of central nervous system hyperarousal rather than one of sleep loss, which is usually associated with no change or decrease in cortisol secretion or a circadian disturbance.
Association of hypertension and sleep-disordered breathing.
TLDR
Sleep-disordered breathing, even snoring, was independently associated with hypertension in both men and women, and this relationship was strongest in young subjects, especially those of normal weight, a finding that is consistent with previous findings that SDB is more severe in young individuals.
Sleep Misperception and Chronic Insomnia in the General Population: Role of Objective Sleep Duration and Psychological Profiles
TLDR
Underestimation of sleep duration is prevalent among insomniacs with objective normal sleep duration, and anxious-ruminative traits and poor resources for coping with stress seem to mediate the underestimation ofSleep duration.
Cognitive-Emotional Hyperarousal as a Premorbid Characteristic of Individuals Vulnerable to Insomnia
TLDR
It seems that maladaptive coping stress strategies and cognitive-emotional hyperarousal predispose to the development of insomnia and that interventions targeting these characteristics may be important in the prevention and treatment of chronic insomnia.
Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with a high risk for hypertension.
TLDR
Insomnia with short sleep duration is associated with increased risk of hypertension, to a degree comparable to that of other common sleep disorders, e.g., SDB.
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