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An Immunomodulatory Molecule of Symbiotic Bacteria Directs Maturation of the Host Immune System
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex ecosystem consisting of countless bacteria in homeostasis with the host immune system. Shaped by evolution, this partnership has potential forExpand
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Polysaccharide immunomodulators as therapeutic agents: structural aspects and biologic function.
  • A. Tzianabos
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Clinical microbiology reviews
  • 1 October 2000
Polysaccharide immunomodulators were first discovered over 40 years ago. Although very few have been rigorously studied, recent reports have revealed the mechanism of action and structure-functionExpand
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A bacterial carbohydrate links innate and adaptive responses through Toll-like receptor 2
Commensalism is critical to a healthy Th1/Th2 cell balance. Polysaccharide A (PSA), which is produced by the intestinal commensal Bacteroides fragilis, activates CD4+ T cells, resulting in a Th1Expand
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Cytokines, allergy, and asthma
Purpose of reviewThis review examines recent articles on the relationship of cytokines to allergy and asthma with particular emphasis on immune mechanisms involved in disease development in earlyExpand
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Polysaccharide Processing and Presentation by the MHCII Pathway
The adaptive immune system functions through the combined action of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells. Specifically, class I major histocompatibility complex antigen presentation to CD8(+)Expand
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Structural features of polysaccharides that induce intra-abdominal abscesses.
The capsular polysaccharide complex from Bacteroides fragilis promotes the formation of intra-abdominal abscesses--a pathologic host response to infecting microorganisms. This complex consists of twoExpand
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Extensive surface diversity of a commensal microorganism by multiple DNA inversions
The dynamic interactions between a host and its intestinal microflora that lead to commensalism are unclear. Bacteria that colonize the intestinal tract do so despite the development of a specificExpand
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Antibody-Independent, Interleukin-17A-Mediated, Cross-Serotype Immunity to Pneumococci in Mice Immunized Intranasally with the Cell Wall Polysaccharide
ABSTRACT Serotype-specific immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae is conferred by antibodies to the capsular polysaccharides, which define the 90 known serotypes. Whether antibody to the species-commonExpand
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A Defined O-Antigen Polysaccharide Mutant of Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain Has Attenuated Virulence while Retaining Its Protective Capacity
ABSTRACT Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, has been designated a CDC category A select agent because of its low infective dose (<10 CFU), its ready transmission by aerosol,Expand
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CD4+ T Cells Mediate Abscess Formation in Intra-abdominal Sepsis by an IL-17-Dependent Mechanism 1
Abscess formation associated with intra-abdominal sepsis causes severe morbidity and can be fatal. Previous studies have implicated T cells in the pathogenesis of abscess formation, and we haveExpand
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