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An Immunomodulatory Molecule of Symbiotic Bacteria Directs Maturation of the Host Immune System
During colonization of animals with the ubiquitous gut microorganism Bacteroides fragilis, a bacterial polysaccharide (PSA) directs the cellular and physical maturation of the developing immune system.
Polysaccharide immunomodulators as therapeutic agents: structural aspects and biologic function.
  • A. Tzianabos
  • Medicine, Biology
    Clinical microbiology reviews
  • 1 October 2000
The ability to modulate the immune response in an appropriate way can enhance the host's immune response to certain infections and can be utilized to augment current treatment regimens such as antimicrobial therapy that are becoming less efficacious with the advent of antibiotic resistance.
Cytokines, allergy, and asthma
An enhanced Th2 immune response and the elaboration of cytokines such as IL-4, IL-13, and IL-5 contribute to the induction of allergy and asthma.
Polysaccharide Processing and Presentation by the MHCII Pathway
It is shown that zwitterionic polysaccharides from the capsules of some bacteria can activate CD4(+) T cells and are processed to low molecular weight carbohydrates by a nitric oxide-mediated mechanism and presented to T cells through the MHCII endocytic pathway.
A bacterial carbohydrate links innate and adaptive responses through Toll-like receptor 2
Toll-like receptors are identified as crucial to the convergence of innate and adaptive responses stimulated by PSA, which potentially modulate the Th1/Th2 cell balance and the response to infection by coordinating both the innate andadaptive pathways.
Structural features of polysaccharides that induce intra-abdominal abscesses.
Analysis of these polysaccharides as well as other charged carbohydrates before and after chemical modification revealed that these oppositely charged groups are required for the induction of intra-abdominal abscesses in a rat model.
Antibody-Independent, Interleukin-17A-Mediated, Cross-Serotype Immunity to Pneumococci in Mice Immunized Intranasally with the Cell Wall Polysaccharide
C-Ps given intranasally with mucosal adjuvant increased the resistance of mice to experimental nasopharyngeal colonization by capsulated S. pneumoniae of serotype 6B and protected in a model of fatal aspiration pneumonia by heavily capsulated serotype 3.
Extensive surface diversity of a commensal microorganism by multiple DNA inversions
It is demonstrated that the human colonic microorganism, Bacteroides fragilis, is able to modulate its surface antigenicity by producing at least eight distinct capsular polysaccharides—a number greater than any previously reported for a bacterium—and is ableTo regulate their expression in an on–off manner by the reversible inversion of DNA segments containing the promoters for their expression.
A Defined O-Antigen Polysaccharide Mutant of Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain Has Attenuated Virulence while Retaining Its Protective Capacity
It is reported that inactivation of the wbtA-encoded dehydratase of the O-antigen polysaccharide (O-PS) locus of the still-unlicensed live vaccine strain of F. tularensis (LVS) results in a mutant with remarkably attenuated virulence, despite this significant attenuation in virulence.
CD4+ T Cells Mediate Abscess Formation in Intra-abdominal Sepsis by an IL-17-Dependent Mechanism 1
It is shown that mice deficient in αβTCR-bearing T cells or CD4+ T cells fail to develop abscesses following challenge with B. fragilis or abscess-inducing zwitterionic polysaccharides, compared with CD8−/− or wild-type animals.